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The Two Activities of COX-Z and Its Benefits Essay

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In Biochemistry, Matthews 4th Edition the COX-2 is a bifunctional endoplasmic reticulum membrane enzyme with two activities in single heme-containing polypeptide chain. The first, a cyclooxygenase activity , introduces two molecules of O2 and gives PGG2. The cyclooxygenase reaction is one of the first steps in eicosanoid synthesis for prostaglandins. The second activity, a peroxidase, is a two electron reduction of the peroxide to give PGH2. PGH2 is a prostaglandin endoperoxide that serves as a precursor to other prostaglandins. COX-2 specifically is induced by cytokines, mitogens, and endotoxins in the inflammatory cells and is responsible for the elevated production of prostaglandins during inflammation. P53 is a tumor suppressor…show more content…
Heptocytes are the cells of the main tissue in the liver. The article describes the relationship between protein and lipid oxidation with the expression of COX-2 and p53 genes in adult MSCs during their trans-differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. The most pivotal data within this article is the correlation of the p53 down-regulation with the expression of COX-2 during the differentiation of MSCs into hepatocytes. The changes in the COX-2 and p53 expression in relation to oxidative stress were studied using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction at mRNA levels over the course of 21 days with cell samples taken every 7 days. The authors isolated the mononuclear cells in a culture medium in a CO2 incubator. The non-adherent cells were removed by replacement of the culture every 3 days so that only the fibroblast-like adherent cells remained which gave the MSCs. To induce the hepatocyte differentiation of the MSCs they carried out a two-step protocol employing HGF, DEX, and oncostatin M to promote hepatocyte differentiation.

The first bar chart demonstrates the COX-2 expression at mRNA levels during the hepatocyte differentiation of MSCs. The second bar chart demonstrates p53 expression at mRNA levels in MSCs and hepatocytes cells during differentiation. All the assays were carried out in triplicate with cell samples taken at each time point. The authors
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