The Water Reseach

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Water is a tasteless, odorless and transparent liquid and is commonly described as the universal solvent (Shih, 2014). Solid, liquid and gas are the states of water that exist in the environment. The most abundant molecular compound covering seventy percent of our planet’s surface is water (Shih, 2014). The amount of water is constant (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources [OMNR], 2009). However, only point zero one percent of the total water on the planet is fresh water (OMNR, 2009). In reference to the city of Toronto, Lake Ontario is the source of fresh water in Toronto. The fresh water from the lake goes through series steps of purification before it reaches the consumers as tap water. Firstly, the water from the lake through the pipes. The water then goes through the screening, where large objects and debris are removed. Next is the pre-chlorination, where chemicals such as chlorine and alum are mixed in the water. Chlorine kills the pathogens while alum causes the small particles of dirt to clump together. The clumps of dirt are known as floc. The solid particles are collected as they settle at the bottom of the basin. To eliminate the impurities from the water, it undergoes filtration where layers of graded gravel, fine sand and carbon or anthracite. The water is then stored in holding basins. Chlorine and fluorine are also added in this stage. Sulfur dioxide removes the excess chlorine from the water. Finally, the last step of purification is to combine ammonia
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