The development of the novel in the 20th century

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4. The novel from 1881 to 1914

Over the eighteen eighties there was a split in fiction. The first indication towards it was Henry James' essay "The Art of Fiction" (1884), which referred to the novelist's calling as a "Sacred office". Besides, there appeared a stratification of fiction due to primary education for all. Parallel to this, novelists saw themselves apart from the public, as dedicated men. This new modern conception involved dignity and a sense of glory. Another change was from the three-volume novel to the one volume one. Together with the demands of the new publics, this shortening divided the Victorian novel into the categories of fiction we know today. The key name in the eighties is Henry James, who strove to give the
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During the period between wars we find the "Jazz Age". Then, prose fiction becomes associated with simple plots, utopian worlds and literature of disillusionment. Aldous Huxley's dystopia Brave New World illustrates how worries moved beyond their time and addressed the dangers of a technologically engineered future. An extreme example of disillusionment literature is George Orwell's works, where a deception with Communism and Socialism ideals is depicted. The most relevant examples are Homage to Catalonia (1938), Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty four (1949).

4.3. Post-War and Post-Modern Literatures and the Neo-Gothic

After World War II, there are many names that are important to quote. An example is Elizabeth Bowen. She has been associated with V.Woolf since she explored the inner emotional life, as in The Hotel (1927). After the fifties, Britain lost its overseas Empire steadily but gained a new cultural diversity.That way, Britain started building itself in a culturally, socially and economically different reality. This also had its impact on literature. The new novelists of the fifties include Samuel Beckett's experimental narrative, D.H. Lawrence, Lawrence Durrell, William Golding, Angus Wilson, Iris Murdoch and Muriel Spark.

During the 1960s and the 1970s a new morality, already sensed in Larkin's poem Annus Mirabilis (1963), appeared. This led to female and male reformulations in fiction. In the 1960s the broadening of women's opportunities and
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