Theoretical Approaches And Theories Of Psychology

1803 WordsNov 11, 20158 Pages
Analyse theoretical approaches to psychology In this essay I will be looking at different approaches and theories used in psychology. The behaviourists believed that all behaviour is learned through the environment. They suggest that we learn through classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov 1902. Classical conditioning suggests that all behaviour is learnt through association. Pavlov discovered this through his works with dogs. It was also believed that classical conditioning can lead to the development of phobias. This was demonstrated by Watson and Rayner 1920 with the case of little Albert (gross p162). It is believed that as all behaviour is learned then it can also be un-learned. This can be done through behaviour therapies. Flooding is generally used for those with phobias. It involves exposing individuals to situations they are afraid of in an intense manner. There is ethical issues around this therapy as clients are subject to intense fear and anxiety. Systematic desensitisation are more effective on phobias (phobialist 1997). Some of the therapies are not effective on more severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and can also oversimplify illnesses by focusing on the symptoms not the cause. Most behaviourists believe that most phobias are from previous traumatic experiences. Operant conditioning was developed by Edward Thorndike. Thorndike suggested that learning could
Open Document