Theory of Morality: Monism, Pluralism, Particularism

1052 WordsDec 1, 20095 Pages
When considering the theory of morality. There are many different views about the guidelines humans should follow in order to be a good human and live in a functional environment. Monism, pluralism, and particularism are three different ideas about how one should make decisions. Pluralism seems to be the most plausible in our society. Monism states that there is one principle of rightness. An example of this is utilitarianism. The utilitarian view considers the optional, obligatory and forbidden acts. Action X is forbidden if, and only if, x produces less than maximal utility. Action X is obligatory, if and only if, X maximizes utility. Action X is optional if X is one of several actions that maximizes utility. Utility measures amounts…show more content…
Examples are giving pleasure such as taking a nephew to a baseball game. The nephew could enjoy baseball or not enjoy it at all. It can go both ways. When analyzing consequentialism, one would come to the conclusion that it is a monistic view. Particularism challenges consequentialism when it states to always choose the action with the maximal amount of goodness to come of it. What if a human was in a situation where one had to make a decision where both outcomes are equally good/bad. The example of whether a perfectly healthy man should be sacrificed for 5 ill humans in need of organs. The goodness of saving 5 lives as opposed to one is considered to produce more goodness than keeping one life. Obviously, this is not how our world works. The rule of consequentialism does not hold it's own with this example. Consequentialism bases their way of making decisions by using a form of measurement. It seems that not all choices in life are that easy to make, especially by solely measuring happiness. Particularism focuses more on particular circumstances. What could create more goodness in one situation could do the opposite in another situation. Who is to say what creates the most happiness? One human may believe action a will create more happiness than action b, but another human may believe action b will create more happiness. Consequentialism seems to be a good view for the overall wellness

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