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Transformational & Transactional Leadership Essay

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Introduction
Over the past twenty years, an abundant body of researches have been done to review transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Burn (1978) was the first person to introduce and conceptualize the concept of transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Bass (1985) based on Burn’s concept and deepen his notion with modifications, which stated that one of the best frameworks of leadership is transformational or transactional, but not opposing to each other. Followed by Bass and Avolio (1994), they provide the idea of these two leaderships and generalize them into the development of global economic world. Bass and Avolio (1997) also suggested that there was no need to view transformational and
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Leaders are aiming to control and surveillance employees through sensible and thrifty intention (Bass, 1985). It simply requires an agreement between leaders and followers toward organization goal (Burns, 1978). In transformation leadership, leaders focus on changing followers’ moral sensibilities and potentially increasing their motivation beyond self-interest (Kezar & Eckel, 2008, p. 381). It needs more associated with outcome criteria than transactional leadership (Rowold & Rohmann, 2009, p. 42). Transformation leadership helps to build positive relationship among staff and raising their morale. In contrast, transactional leadership helps to build the fundamental structure of the organisation (Kezar & Eckel, 2008, p. 383).

Transformational leadership are clarified into four dimensions which are pointed out by Bass (1990, p. 28), ‘charisma, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration’. Apart from these basic roles, charisma leadership has its own role of literature since it has similarity with transformational leadership and they are contribution to each other (Judge & Piccolo, 2004, p. 755). On the other hand, there are three dimensions of transactional leadership which includes contingent reward, active and passive. The difference between active and passive which are the exceptions of management is the timing of leaders’ interference. It is also the advantage
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