Trauma And Interpersonal Trauma

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Trauma can be described in many ways physical, sexual, emotional or mentally. For children and adolescent’s trauma and being victims of trauma can come for three different factors such as genetic or biological factors such as a DNA, problems with chromosomes, age of the parents during conception, or anything that may have affected the fetus/infant’s prenatal or post-natal care; environmental factors include surrounding areas both inside and outside of the home; and lasting their social or personal relationships, thus can include bullying, or assault (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012). Interpersonal trauma can affect a child/adolescents social, psychological, cognitive and biological development (D’Andrea, Ford, …show more content…

going from an abuse home to being placed in a loving caring home), (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012). Trauma can also put children/adolescents at risk for impulsive behavior such substance or alcohol abuse, increased sexual behavior, aggression and self-harm (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012). Children affected by trauma may also experience eating disorders, anxiety, depression, anger or withdrawal issues (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012). They may also experience memory issues, regression, trouble with problem solving, sleeping trouble, lack of self-esteem, self-worth, poor body image nutritional and physical health problems (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012). They may experience self-loathing, attention deficits, homelessness, as well as show lack of emotion and inappropriate social behavior. (D’Andrea, Ford, Stolbach, Spinazzola, & Van der Kolk, 2012) Additionally children and adolescents exposed to trauma can have educational delays, self-pity, self-blame, engage in destructive behaviors (i.e. stealing, or property damage), they may experience trust or abandonment issues, (Brown, …show more content…

However, more women experience PTSD than men when exposed to this trauma, (Ruglass & Kendall-Tackett, 2014).

Brown, W. K. (2011). Growing past childhood trauma. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(4), 13-17. Retrieved from
De Bellis, M. D., & Zisk, A. (2014). The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(2), 185-222. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.002
D’Andrea, W., Ford, J., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & Van der Kolk, B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: Why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(2), 187-200. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01154.x
Ruglass, L. P., & Kendall-Tackett, K. P. (2014). Psychology of Trauma 101 (1). New York, US: Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from

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