Cancer is a genetic disease caused by certain changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide. Genes carry the instructions to make proteins, which do much of the work in our cells. Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancer. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells, which are the reproductive cells of the body (eggs and sperm). Such changes, called germline changes, are found in every cell of the offspring. In general, cancer cells have more genetic changes than normal cells. But each person’s cancer has a unique combination of genetic alterations.
Cancer is described as the abnormal growth of cells. Normal cells are replaced with abnormal cells in which their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been damaged or augmented (McCance & Huether, 2014). Cancer cells with their various DNA changes are characterized by growing uncontrollably, being immortal with an unlimited lifespan
In order to become cancerous a cell has many molecular changes that can occur including: tumor suppressor gene inactivation, oncogene activation, telomerase lengthening, ability to evade apoptosis, and angiogenesis (Mechanisms in Medicine, 2012). There are a few particular
Cancer is a disease in which cells multiply out of control and gradually build a mass of tissue called a tumor. There has been a large amount of research dedicated to the treatment and cure of cancer. Several types of treatments have been developed. The following are just some of the major examples of cancer therapy: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biologic therapy, biorhythms, unconventional treatments, and hyperthermia. Each type of treatment is discussed in detail below.
Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. The DNA sequence in cells can be changed as a result of copying errors during replication. If these changes whatever their cause are left uncorrected, both growing and non-growing somatic cells might gain many mutations that they could no longer function. The relevance of DNA damage and repair to the generation of cancer was obvious when it was recognized that everything that causes cancer also cause a change in the DNA sequence. Tumor suppressor genes are protective genes and normally they limit cell growth by monitoring the speed of cell division, repair mismatched DNA and control when a cell dies. When a tumor suppressor gene is mutated cells grow
Cancer cells displayed marked alterations in pro-growth signaling pathways and key metabolic pathways relative to non-tumorigenic differentiated cells, often due to loss of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenic driver mutations. The remodeled signaling and metabolic profiles of cancer cells support not only their aberrant proliferation, but also their survival. Further factors such as intra-tumoral heterogeneity, altered redox status, and epigenetic modifications all contribute to the ability of certain tumors to develop drug resistance and persist under standard treatments.
What are some of the things that come to mind when you think of cancer treatments? Perhaps you envision some sort of chemotherapy treatment, or a bottle of expensive pills used to target specific genetic mutations that may have caused the horrid disease to develop. While these treatments have been proven to save some of cancers victims, research suggests that there is a natural cure that deems promising in curing cancer.
There are many different type of cancers, there are also many different types of treatments. One of the most known types of treatments would be chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used for a wide range of different types of cancers and diseases, and each of the different types of cancers or diseases require a different group, and sometimes order, of chemicals to properly treat the cancer or disease. These chemicals include: Alkylating agents, Antimetabolites, Anthracyclines, Topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, corticosteroids, and more. Each of these drugs previously listed have its own cancer type(s) or disease(s) that it can assist in treating. Some of these cancers include: Leukemia, Lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, multiple
Targeted therapy, which first became available in the late 1990s, has had a significant impact on the treatment of cancer. Currently, because of advancement in the field of technology, various types of therapies are discovered to treat cancer. In this essay, targeted therapy is defined as a therapy in which various drugs or other substances are used to recognize and kill the cancerous cells without harming the normal cell (National cancer institute, 2014). Effectiveness refers to the degree in
As the cancer continues to spread throughout society, many treatments are creating in order to help the patients during their time in need. Although the most popular and used often
“HIPEC enables us to administer a high concentration of chemotherapy right where the cancer cells live, rather than circulate it all around the body,” Dr. Labow said. “This allows for fewer side effects and better killing of the cancer cells. It can also reduce the need for regular chemotherapy, although it is usually given in addition to regular chemo, and not instead of it. It gives us a new option to fight the most difficult to treat cancers.”
Cancer occurrs by the production of multiple mutations in a single cell that causes it to proliferate out of control. Cancer cells often different from their normal neighbors by a host of specific phenotypic changes, such as rapid division rate, invasion of new cellular territories, high metabolic rate, and altered shape. Some of those mutations may be transmitted from the parents through the germ line. Others arise de novo in the somatic cell lineage of a particular cell. Cancer-promoting mutations can be identified in a variety of ways. They can be cloned and studied to learn how they can be controlled.