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Tuberculosis Is Among the Major Infectious Killer Diseases Essay

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Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly contagious disease is among the three major infectious killers that causes high mortality and morbidity, worldwide.1 Tuberculosis infects one-third of the world's population with an estimated 8.7 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths every year (WHO, 2012)2. Tuberculosis prevention has become more complex due to increased resistance against different antibiotics including rifampicin.3
TB is a socio-economic disaster that is occurring worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa.4 Pakistan is ranked 6th in terms of estimated number of the tuberculosis cases by World Health Organization (WHO) among high burden countries.5It is the second leading cause of adult death in impoverished communities of Pakistan.6
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Immunodiagnostic tests are relatively simple to use, inexpensive and easy to interpret and also better for detecting extra pulmonary tuberculosis and for TB in children. The result from a serological test using the ELISA could be available within hours.14
A new rapid test that overcomes many of the current operational difficulties was recommended for use by WHO in December 2010: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The test is based on a real-time heminested PCR test which detects the presence of M. tuberculosis complex bacilli.15By using 5 molecular beacons which span the rpoB gene 81-bp rifampin resistance-determining region (RRDR) in Mycobacterium.16The Xpert MTB/RIF assay represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB by simultaneously detecting MTB and rifampicin resistance-conferring mutations in mycobacterium in a closed system suitable for use outside conventional laboratory
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