A Summary Of Unconventional T Cells

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A team of researchers from has found the possible key to create a vaccine for tuberculosis. In a partnership with Public Health England, the researchers discovered a way to trigger an immune response from unconventional T cells.

Traditional T cells are reactive with peptide complexes and major histocompatibility complex proteins. Meanwhile, unconventional T cells are reactive with lipids, small-molecule metabolites, and specially modified peptides. Unconventional T cells include CD1-restricted T cells, MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells, MHC class Ib-reactive T cells, and γδ T cells. Unconventional T cells are currently under research to determine their therapeutic use.

In the study by the universities of Southampton and …show more content…

The study findings could be proved useful for the development of future methods of prevention and treatment of tuberculosis.

How Tuberculosis Drugs Work

Tuberculosis is a major global health crisis with at least 10.4 million cases worldwide reported in 2016. An estimated 1.7 million of deaths is associated with the disease. It is also the leading infection that kills people infected with HIV, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The drugs used to treat infections caused by Mycobacteria are called antimycobacterials. Isoniazid is included in the first-line of broad-spectrum drugs used to treat tuberculosis. Isoniazid works by preventing the synthesis of mycolic acids of the bacteria. However, resistance can develop quickly if used alone. Other antimycobacterials included in the first broad-spectrum drugs are as follows:

- Rifampin is designed to inhibit the bacterial RNA polymerase, preventing it to form necessary proteins.

- Ethambutol works by disrupting the bacterial cell wall to increase permeability, allowing substances to pass through it.

- Pyrazinamide converts an enzyme to disrupt the cell membrane and disables the energy production of the bacteria.

- Streptomycin is an antibiotic that stops the growth of bacteria.

In case the strain of the tuberculosis bacteria is resistant to the first-line

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