There are many different types of therapies for cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is the most common and following that is immunotherapy. A recent method has been discovered that is a targeted therapy. The recent discovery of targeted therapies has offered a wealth of improvements in the field of oncology. Targeted therapy is the most recent type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to attack solely cancer cells while trying to minimize the damage to normal cells. Targeted therapies attack the programming inside cells, what sets them apart from healthy normal cells. A recent targeted therapy of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) have been revealed to provide an alternative therapy for cancers that involve mutations in the genes: BRCA1 and BRCA2. These two genes are involved in repair of double stranded break (DSB). When either gene is mutated, the change can lead to errors in DNA repair that can cause cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are enzymes that have been recently recognized as critical regulators of cell survival and cell death. Drugs that inhibit PARP-1 help fight cancers caused by mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
A research group in France discovered that flooding BRCA gene deficient cells with DSBs leads to cell death, and to do this they increased the number of SSBs thereby blocking the enzyme Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Blocking this enzyme using various drugs is what is
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For years people have been looking for a cure for the devastating disease of cancer. Cancer is the third highest killer in the US with over 2,500,000 victims per year. Oncologists and scientists around the country are researching all forms of cancer in an effort to understand, treat, and ultimately defeat this disease. Already there have been numerous advances in the field, such as chemotherapy and gene therapy. One advance has been the use of a cell process known as apoptosis. By harnessing this normal cell process, scientists hope to have found an effective way to combat cancer.
Niosomes can alter the metabolism; prolong circulation and half life of the drug, thus decrease the side effects of antineoplastic drugs. Niosomally entrapped methotrexate and doxorubicin showed beneficial effects over the free drug, such as decreased rate of proliferation of the tumor and higher plasma levels accompanied by slower elimination (9).
Genomic research has shown that the presence of certain gene alterations/mutations can reliably predict the likelihood of clinical benefit using agents that inhibit the expression of defective genes responsible for carcinogenesis or DNA repair. Relevant to this case, is the demonstration of an altered ATM gene that appears to predict the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib. Clinical responses have demonstrated in at least one clinical trial. 1 Olaparib has been granted “Breakthrough Therapy” designation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer harboring an ATM gene mutation. Based on similar data, olaparib has already received FDA-approval for use in treating metastatic ovarian cancer in patients having a BRCA 1/2 mutation. The benefit of “Breakthrough Therapy” designation is to expedite development of
In this case study, we have an eight year old boy who has a malignant tumor. The young man was treated at a city hospital, but the treatment failed him. The physician recommended that he undergoes a surgical procedure, but his family is very religious and they believe in the power of prayer, they are also fearful of the procedure going wrong. The family then refuses the surgery. The surgeon stresses that the surgery is the best option for the little boy if they want him to live, so the hospital is thinking about going over the family’s head and getting a court order approved so they may do surgery and save the boy’s life.
BRCA1 is a gene that produces tumor suppression proteins which play critical roles in DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and maintenance of genomic stability. Inherited mutated BRCA1 causes DNA damage to not be repaired properly and these cells can then form genetic alterations leading to female breast cancer (Easton 1999). Breast cancer is a disease where malignant cancer cells form in the tissue of the breast and invade surrounding tissues and spread.
In this case study we have an eight year old boy who has a malignant tumor. The young man was treated at a city hospital, but the treatment failed him. The physician recommended that he under goes a surgical procedure, but his family is very religious and they believe in the power of prayer, they are also fearful of the procedure going wrong. The family then refuses the surgery. The surgeon stresses that the surgery is the best option for the little boy if they want him to live, so the hospital is thinking about going over the family’s head and getting a court order approved so they may do surgery and save the boy’s life.
To date MSK has twenty-four facilities throughout New York and New Jersey providing a multitude of inpatient and outpatient services associated with the study, diagnosis and treatment of various forms of cancer. The Memorial hospital accommodates 471 beds, a 72,000-square-foot surgical center and state-of-the-art outpatient treatment center (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2015c). MSK houses more than 35 core facilities with research being conducted in over 120 laboratories. Core facilities are dedicated to the development of scientific technology that aids in the study and treatment of cancer. Additionally Gerstner Sloan Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Weill Cornell Graduate School of
Therefore, a cancer that involves a mutation in these BRAC1 and BRAC2 genes (BRCAness) can be effectively treated with PARP1 inhibitors, which may represent very efficient therapies for TNBC because of the high sensitivity of these tumours to the inhibitor and moreimportantly, it is devoid of harmful effects on the remaining healthy cells. This contrasts with conventional chemotherapies, which are highly toxic to all cells and can provoke DNA damage in healthy cells that may further lead to secondary cancer generation (Bryant et al., 2005) At present various PARP1 inhibitors are under development in different phases of clinical trial but, as yet, no major breakthrough has been achieved(Jamdade et al.,2015)
As the world continues to suffer from these devastating diseases, researchers continue to find alternative therapeutic ways of addressing cancer treatment. It is on this premise that various immunotherapeutic alternatives have emerged and currently garnering the greatest level of attention and already raising hope throughout the world in addressing the treatment of NSCLC. However, this can no longer be viewed as a discovery but a wave in the medicine world that began in the 20th century. Various researchers have found the importance of the role of immune systems in fighting the growth of tumor caused by cancer cells. A study by Huncharek (2000) stated that specific immune boosters are capable of eliminating preclinical cancers. In contrast, Jermal et al. (2011) found that immunotherapy is an effective approach for the treatment of tumors that have already turned into solid. Similarly, the researchers highlighted that immunotherapy can be an effective approach to the treatment of melanoma as well as renal cell cancers (Lasalvia-Prisco, 2008). However, Jemal et al. (2011) noted that immunotherapy cannot achieve much in cancer treatment due to limitation brought about by the emission of immunosuppressive cytokines and subsequent loss of antigen expressions. Recent development in research studies on the immunotherapy approach to cancer treatment continues to elicit mixed reactions among researchers of medicinal ecology (Jadad et al., 1996). However, recent development in
Alternative cancer therapy is definitely a reasonably fresh invention in the world today. In addition to various types of treating cancer, there can be pure cure sites which will present get rid of as well as stop the illness. These sites supply valuable details for anyone hunting to reduce ailment for ever.
Despite the numerous advances in recent years, many cancer therapies have retained a focus on cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy as the main course of treatment in patients with various types of maligancies. This approach is however unspecific in its mechanism, and effects its cytotoxic mechanism on healthy patient cells as well as cancer cells, causing a variety of secondary health problems and side effects in the patients, the most obvious and commonly observed being hair loss and an abnormal Full Blood Count profile (thrombocytopenia, for example).
The treatment plan for our patient that the doctor has chosen is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy includes the use of anticancer drugs in combination, generally over a couple of years (Movva, 2015). The drugs will be taken in either by mouth or by IV. The treatment plan should last about a month for our patient. There will be many side effects from the chemotherapy. Possible side effects include hair loss, nausea and vomiting, and increased risk for infection or bleeding in the short term, as well as other potential health problems later (Ben-Joseph, 2014). Doctors will keep record of side effects in order to treat patient with extra care if needed.
Dr Angeline Yek En Hui is a senior lecturer and cancer researcher at Newcastle University. Most of her publications in well-known journals such as Nature and Journal of Cancer are mainly centring the targeting therapies studies for cancers, mostly ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Aiming to innovate new treatments for various cancers, she raised a team of 50 dedicated and responsible researchers and postgraduate students. In recent years, by the deep realizing and understanding about the involvement of BCL-2 family as an anti-apoptotic protein in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway which leads to cancer, her team start to focus particularly in investigating the effect of downregulating the BCL-2 which might
Cancer is an important health problem that has strongly increased over the past couple of decades. According to the American Cancer Society, approximately 1,638,910 people in the United States are diagnosed with cancer each year; that is around 187 people per minute. This disease is ranked as the second most common cause of death in America. With cancer being so common today, there needs to be an effective and relatively fast treatment plan to cure the victims of cancer without causing more harm to them. Extensive research and analysis is critical to determine the best method of treatment. Cancer can be fatal but recent advancement and better understanding of the disease has produced major triumph in overcoming the ailment. Aside from