Western Colonization has affected the ways countries view themselves in various facets from economically to socially. Although the initial wave of colonialism has somewhat passed, that is the act of going and occupying other territories , Western ideals still manage to have an effect on how countries conduct themselves and how they respond to different situations . When examining South Africa 's response to the treatment of Caster Semenya by the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) we see this playing out. Semenya is an intersexed South African track star, forced to undergo gender-verification testing in response to her gold medal win at the World Track and Field championship
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Evidence of this idea of scientific racism dates back to the 19th century, when Saartjie Baartman, a South African women, was "transported to Britain and France to be scientifically studied as a cause celebre"(170). Baartman 's exhibit consisted of her being portrayed in a cage for a period of time until she then paraded around the viewers and underwent poking and touching. Viewers could not believe that her "buttocks” was real, and subsequently, after her death, George Cuvier "[claimed] her body in the interests of science"(Hill Collins 26). When thinking about this is comparison to Semenya 's affair, it would seem like this was once again a case of a South African women being degraded based on physical appearance and questioning of their African aesthetics. Instead of this being a case of hypersexuality (the over sexualization of black women by the Western world) Semenya would be subject to an increased sexual regulation. While Baartman was viewed with fascination, Semenya was viewed with contempt, even being referred to as a “man” by one of her competitors (Dworkin 138). Ironically, had Semenya been born male and chosen to identify as such she would never had undergone the gender-verification testing as a result of not only male privilege but also cisgender privilege. The entire practice of gender-verification is really used to "confirm femaleness" because of the "assumption that superior athletics performances are a natural essence of
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The European imperialism was very beneficial as it changed many structures of governments. For example, the Japanese had a feudalist government where the nobility had land in exchange for military service and the peasants/slaves were forced to live in their owner’s land while doing labor such as producing crops in exchange for military protection. This government was also strict on foreigners as they prohibited foreigners from entering Japan. However, this system was soon abolished as the European imperialism showed the negative aspects of this type of government. It was switched out and became more westernized. According to Woodblock prints of domestic ‘westernization’ “ No one anticipated that Japan would or could throw off seven countries
The most important theme of this chapters we have covered in this course to me was European colonialism it has had major affect on many cities we have covered in this course . European colonialism has changed cities for the better and worse . In some of the cases where it might have better a city was in the case of New York I know this is not in the book , but if you look at New York , and what is today it did not get there by itself . It started with the Dutch settlement that would be considered colonialism it established New York as a major city in development . This was a from developing of urbanization starting to form and shape the city . From that point on it brought industrialization , finance , that would help New York become a major
One common thought of the men at the time was that women cannot view the human body scientifically. The experience of Elizabeth Keller and other female students leaving a lecture hall after a lecture is a good example. A man with a broken thigh was brought into class and a momentary exposure happened while measuring the limb. This “proved for a signal of explosion” among the class. The women were hissed and even stoned by the so-called gentlemen from the class.(Wells, 197-198) Another case where men has difficulties viewing women as fully-potentiated scientific peers is when Dr. Mendenhall attended a meeting at Johns Hopkins. The speaker who noticed that two women were presented and started to use very inappropriate and pornographic language to describe nasal tissues. She later described the experience as “nearly sent me out of medicine” (Morantz-Sanchez, 116). In both cases, men at the time show great disrespect to women and refused to view them as their equal peers
Early Western attempts at colonialism can generally be categorized as ruthless and deceitful. The destruction was not limited to environment, “More people in the western hemisphere died during the sixteenth century than in any other demographic crisis in world history.” While the ultimate effects upon these groups were similar, the Taíno and Inca people had different initial responses to the arrival of Western powers.
After Christopher Columbus landed in the West Indies in 1492, Spain and Portugal started disputing areas of influence on the South American continent. The dispute was eventually settled by the Pope (Alexander VI), who in 1493, drew up defined areas of influence for the two nations with the idea of spreading Christianity to the natives in those territories. In time the Portuguese territory became known as Brazil, hence the working language of that country to this day is Portuguese, while most of the rest of the continent speaks Spanish.
European Colonialism has been around since the late 15th century and their model for colonialism will exist for many years to come. Colonization could be considered to start as far back as the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. However, this colonization model was not near as deadly as the European model (Louis). The ancient civilizations educated, advanced, and motivated their colonies to succeed. The European model falls far short of the standard set in past years. This model for colonialism starts in the late 1400s when Britain began its reign over Ireland and Portugal with Spain began its conquest of the Americas. As this model exists currently the mother state sets up satellite states that provide resources to the
From the time frame of 1880 to 1914, the Europeans were looking for a way to improve their economy as a whole. Europe’s population was growing at a steady pace, so more things had to be renovated within their community. Many of the government officials believed that they had to be colonized in order to maintain their global influence to other countries. As another way to colonize, the Europeans spread culture and natural resources to all of the other surrounding places. By spreading culture, they were able to become more educated were able to make a larger profit by exchanging more goods. The new profits led to new more imports and exports which led to more jobs being made. In 1888 the economy boosted from new growth of profit and jobs which
It was a surprise for Christopher Columbus who initially decided to visit India to discover a whole new land already filled with people called the Indios, the Indien, the Indianer, the Indian, the Peaux-rouges, or the redskins. There were so many words to describe these tribes, occupying the New World. Indeed, the natives are the original inhabitants of the American continent and their descendants. Since the sixteenth century, the Europeans had been involved in the exploration and colonization of North America. In addition to that, they had been establishing more or less conflictual relations with the natives, above all because the context of colonial competition told them to do so. Sometimes they even used the rivalries between the different tribes looking for them to stand against each other. In this paper, we shall study the expansion of those former colonies to the West in the nineteenth century. This conquest of the West was the process of colonization of the huge territory stretching in North America between the Mississippi river and Pacific Ocean by people who mainly came from Europe and the United States government. Therefore the Frontier – the line marking the boundary area of the establishment of populations who came from Europe – moved continuously to the West until the end of the nineteenth century.
The motives for the Europeans for expansion and colonization in the new word was a new way of life and exploration. The search for new things and ocean travel was intriguing to the Europeans. Though the conditions in Europe were changing the Europeans thought that they could find better things overseas. The Europeans expanded their capabilities for growth and colonization. The biggest resistance of the Europeans was the Indians. The Indians did not like the thought of foreigners taking over their land and crops. The Indians often battled with the Europeans killing them before they could take over.
Gender testing was introduced around 1936 only to avoid male imposters at female sporting events, as male do have a competitive advantage to women thanks to characteristics such muscle mass, endurance, height, and cardiovascular capacity, such tests were abolished in 1992. Gender testing was never meant to address intersexed athletes, furthermore no special advantage have been evidenced on those athletes with a sexual differentiation
Historians over the last century, while juxtaposing the mechanisms of colonialization for the three main colonial powers in the New World, have consistently portrayed France’s relationship with the indigenous population of New France as the most genial and cooperative. Unlike the Spanish invaders who enslaved large numbers of indigenous populations to fulfil brutal labor needs, or the English who established nearly instant hostile, and some would say genocidal relationships with locals at Roanoke, Jamestown, and Massachusetts Bay, “French-Native interactions are widely known for the cultural adaptations and creative innovations that facilitated trade, diplomacy, and kinship across large portions of North America (11).” Instead of challenging this view, Brett Rushforth in Bonds of Alliance: Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France argues that the enslavement of indigenous populations developed out of this adaptable relationship between the French colonists and their Indian allies residing in the Pays d’en Haut. The cultural, economic, and political pressures exerted by the French presence evolved the practices of traditional slave raiding and holding, which had long been conducted in the region prior to European arrival, into a system neither European nor indigenous. Bonds of Alliance highlights a topic largely ignored from surface studies of New France, specifically, the enslavement of Native people for French acquisition. Unfortunately, his obsessive
Colonialism, which was a major cause of the north-south gap that occurred in the period following the Second World War, is the takeover by a nation of foreign territories; making them part of it to aid its own economical, social and political structures. The mother countries succeed in doing that by using the colony’s natural resources, money savings, and their lands, which leads the colony to rely on the mother country and therefore, leaving the country underdeveloped. Hence, the world wide scramble for colonies, particularly in the late 19th – early 20th century, had a tremendous negative effect on the economic, social, and political structures of indigenous, non-industrialized peoples.
The Europeans colonizing the Americas, Spanish conquistadors taking over South America, fights breaking out among the Spanish and natives. What the Europeans did to the Natives and Africans is unforgivable, and the world had to suffer for their ideas. The Europeans had an overall negative effect with these acts. They murdered the natives, transferred contagious diseases, and caused the downfall of civilizations. This could not stand and the people wanted to fight, but the Europeans remained the dominant civilization.
Although the scourge of colonial oppression, synonymous with exploitation and discrimination on the basis of colour and race, has diminished, the patriarchal system characterised by hegemonic masculinity persists thereby effectively denying them of a voice. Furthermore, in the post-colonial era, they are doubly oppressed as they are not only confronted with a rigid patriarchal system, but also with cultural
Colonization is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. Between 1870 and 1900, Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressure, military invasion and eventual conquest and colonization and at the same time African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. However, by the early twentieth century, all Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia was seized and occupied by the European imperial powers of Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Spain and Italy. Adu Boahen is a Ghanaian historian who wrote " African perspectives of Colonialism" in which, he analyzed the ninetieth and the twentieth century colonialism from a variety of African and European views. He examined the influence of the slave trade, the mood of the Africans at the eve of the colonial system, evaluated the colonial system and how it works and finally evaluated the impact of colonization upon the African continent. Although there is a lot of studies about colonization in Africa, the particularity of Boahen book is the interpretation of the colonial experiences from the perspectives of the colonized.