“What factors contribute to infant mortality in developed and less developed countries?”
“Infant mortality is the number of deaths among live-born infants from birth to under age one” (Sidscenter.org, n.d.). According to a National Vital Statistics Report in 2006, the leading causes of Infant Mortality in the U.S. were deformities, low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, maternal complications, unintentional injuries, respiratory distress of the newborn, bacterial sepsis, neonatal haemorrhage and diseases of the circulatory system (Heron, M.P., Murphy, S.L., Xu, J.Q.,
Kochanek, K.D., & Tejada-Vera, B., 2006). Studies show that in less developed countries around the world some factors contributing to infant mortality …show more content…
Unlike in underdeveloped countries, lack of education and poverty is not as much of a prevalent cause for the death of infants, developed countries also have less exposure to diseases, especially ones
Infanticide is not unique to humans. It is practiced by many mammals including some primates. The main difference between human and animal infanticide is that infanticide in humans is performed by the parent(s) of the child while in the case of animals it is usually a male suitor (Caldwell and Caldwell, 2005, p. 208). In pre-modern societies infanticide was done instead of abortions as it allowed for sexual selection, it was much more effective than pre-modern contraception, and it did not require any special skills or esoteric knowledge (Caldwell and Caldwell,2005, p. 205). Infanticide has a history as a method of population control. It is more frequent to throw away girl babies. This may be because of dowries or other cultural reasons.
Infant mortality rate constitutes the death of a baby before their first birthday. Mortality rates around the world differ tremendously with America leading the first world countries at an alarming rate of 6.1 deaths per 1,000 births. Conversely, Finland and Japan secure the last, most desirable position, with deaths totaling 2.3 per 1,000 births, as of 2010. (Ovaska-Few, 2015) In 2014, over 23,000 babies died in the United States. (CDC, 2016) Exploring the mortality rates in America brings light to a dire need for additional interventions and research as to why this developing nation has the highest rate of infant deaths before the age of 1 year old. African Americans face the worst outcomes of infant death compared to whites, Latino, and their Native American peers in North Carolina. (Ovaska-Few, 2015) This paper will explore why African American are the leading race for infant mortality and the steps that health communities need to take to address this devastating occurrence.
“Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life”(Giscombé, C. L., & Lobel, M., 2005). The infant mortality rate for African Americans is 13.7 deaths per 1000 live births, more than twice the rate (5.7) for White Americans in the U.S. (Kung, Hoyert, Xu, & Murphy, 2008). A lot of the racial disparity in infant mortality can be explained by low birthweight and preterm delivery, which are also disproportionately and often experienced by African Americans (Martin et al., 2007).
There exist some evidence that poverty can result in low birth weight in newborn infants. On Prince Edward Island, low birth weights are currently the lowest as compared to the national average according to Statistics Canada. However, the link that exist between poverty and low birth weights leaves unanswered questions as to what can be done to reduce these low birth weights in newborn infants.
According to Healthy People 2020, "Improving the well-being of mothers, infants, and children, is an important public health goal for the United States. Their well-being determines the health of the next generation and can help predict future public health challenges for families, communities, and the health care system" (Healthy People 2020, 2015). Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant before his or her first birthday, while fetal mortality is defined as the intrauterine death of a fetus at any gestational age (MMRW, 2013 and MacDorman, Kirmeyer & Wilson, 2012). In the United States an estimated 13,000 fetal deaths occurred ≥ 28 weeks gestation making up 28% of all perinatal deaths in 2006, the latest year with available national data (Lee,
Maternal mortality represents more than the loss of lives for individual women, as it also reflects the larger value and prioritization of women 's health and threatens the health and survival of families, young children, and even the communities in which they live (Royston and Armstrong, 1989). Maternal mortality is unacceptably high (WHO, 2015b). Globally, approximately 830 women die every day from pregnancy- or childbirth-related complications (ibid.). The causes of maternal mortality are predominately preventable and can be classified into three fundamental causes: (1) medical - consisting of direct medical problems and pre-existent/coexistent medical problems that are aggravated by pregnancy, (2) underlying - social and legal conditions, and (3) health systems laws and policies that address availability, accessibility, and quality of reproductive health services (PHP et al, 2011).
Summarise the factors which may influence the health and development of babies in the first year of their lives.
The U.S. infant mortality rate is 5.7 per 1000 births and 1.5 in Canada although has declined over the past several decades (O'Neill & O'Neill, 2007). Low-birth weight babies have a better chance at survival in the U.S. than in Canada due to advances in medical technology and expenditures on intensive care units (O'Neill & O'Neill, 2007). The reason there are more infant mortality rates in the U.S. is because there are more infants born weighing very little than compared to Canada.
Infant mortality is of significance as it is used as a quality measure to assess the overall health status of a community (Arizona Health Matters, 2016). An indicator that can be directly linked to the rate of infant mortality is that of prenatal care as this has been identified to be the best preventative measure in regards to the prevention of infant mortality (Arizona Health Matters, 2016). Women who do not receive
Another important factor that mattered a lot if the country is industrialized or not. Third world countries still have high mortality and high birth rates meaning they have lots of kids young, and ide young. While more civilized places have less kids, at an older age and live
Infant mortality rates for African American women are two times higher than any other race in the United States. It is thought that socioeconomic status and low education among the African American population is the main factor in this issue, but it is not. Studies show that as an African American woman in the U.S., childbearing health is affected due to the unequal treatment in American society.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) also known as infant death rate, is the death of an infant before his or her first birthday. Infant mortality is calculated, by the number of children who die under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year. Infant mortality rate is very important as it relates to the health of pregnant women, children and infants and it’s associated with maternal health, quality and access to medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices. The most important purpose of this review is to examine and understand why African American infants are disproportionately affected and the factors(Low birth weight, preterm birth weight and very low birth weight and infant mortality)
In his article, "Why are so many U.S. women dying during childbirth?", Munz (2012) pointed out that U.S. is experiencing a rise in maternal mortality. It has doubled for the last 25 years and the experts are uncertain about the increase. Experts are not entirely clear for the rise in the maternal deaths in the U.S., but there are some aspects that may be link to this.
There are important sociodemographic factors such as younger age, access to resources like food, family support, skilled medical
Most of the children deaths occur due to pneumonia, preterm birth complications, intra-partum related complications, diarrhea and malaria. The issues that prevails, is the fact that universal access to basic social services is not available, and poverty.