• Kidneys produce erythropoietin (EPO). This erythropoietin signals the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, which carries oxygen throughout the body.
• If kidneys are damaged, they do not make enough EPO, which results to anemia. When blood has fewer red blood cells, there’s less oxygen in the body.
• Hemoglobin is the red blood cell that carries oxygen. It is used as the standard measurement for assessing anemia.
• Iron is critical for hemoglobin production. Iron status test reflect the level of iron stored in tissue or the adequacy of iron for erythropoiesis.
• Serum ferritin is the only available blood marker for iron storage. It is affected by inflammation and is an acute phase reactant. It is used with caution especially to those patients
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Anemia is a disorder of the blood. It occurs when your body does not produce enough erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs). Without the erythrocytes oxygen can not be adequately delivered to the tissues and organs throughout the body. This will cause you to become weak and tired. A person may also experience headaches, skin pallor, and faintness. Your body may attempt to compensate for these symptoms by speeding up the heart rate and respiratory rate. This is the body’s attempt to return oxygen levels to normal(Thibodeau and Patton, 2005).
Hemoglobin is a globular protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide to the lung for release. This protein expresses cooperative binding, which makes it ideal for gaseous transport throughout the body. Another protein, myoglobin, has a higher affinity for oxygen in comparison to hemoglobin and is located at the tissues to accept the oxygen from hemoglobin. The kidney hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is the primary regulator of erythropoiesis, which is the production of red blood cells. The body increases the production of this hormone in response to low oxygen conditions to increase the number of oxygen carriers in the blood.
Anemia is a worldwide condition that affects many people of various ages, lifestyles and health history. This condition affects the red blood cells in the body when not enough hemoglobin is being made due most often to the lack of iron in the body. A way to help with this is by administering drugs, such as Epogen and Procrit, which can increase the hemoglobin level in the body. There is no one optimal hemoglobin level for everyone as it varies due to different factors, including sex, health, and lifestyle.
Markers of iron status suggest a lower prevalence of iron deficiency in the MSC compared to local controls: transferrin saturation <16% = 25% [N=835] vs 47%[N=79] in controls. Moreover, our data suggest that higher iron status (but not iron overload) assessed by transferrin saturation is associated with lower daytime and nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen saturations . Transferrin saturation is not associated with haemoglobin concentrations in SCD cases, compared to a strong correlation in the non-SCA controls, whilst adequate iron status assessed by the F-index (ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to logged ferritin), is paradoxically associated with greatly increased odds of having averaged steady state haemoglobin concentrations in the lowest septile (RR=5.45 [2.71/10.96] P<0.001). Hence iron will not be included in the fortificants of the current intervention.
Anemia is a condition that affects one’s blood where there are not enough healthy red blood cells (RBCs). When there aren’t enough RBCs, the cells in the body will not get enough oxygen. This is the most common blood condition in the US that affects over 3 million Americans. Some forms of anemia are hereditary;
As living creature’s animals and people iron is one of many essential minerals we that need to stay alive. Iron is required to produce red blood cells through a process called haematopoiesis. It is also an important component of the red blood cells (in hemoglobin) where the iron is present when that is transporting oxygen from the lungs then throughout the body. Once the oxygen delivered the iron binds to the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and the carbon is exhaled. It has many other functions: maintain homeostasis, metabolism (conversion of blood sugar to energy, production of enzymes, amino acids, new cells, hormones, etc.). The metabolisms process is allowing people to maintain healthy cells of skin, nails, hair, internal organs, and everything else that allows a person to be alive. However too little iron could cause a condition known as iron deficiency such as anemia. If someone has too much iron it can cause a person to become toxic as the storage of iron increases it would cause Hemochromatosis and other conditions. For the research, I have selected House: season three and episode 23 “The Jerk”.
Haemoglobin determination, or haemoglobinometry, is the measurement of the concentration of haemoglobin in the blood. Haemoglobin's main function in the body is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and to assist in transporting carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. The formation of haemoglobin takes place in the developing red cells located in bone marrow. Haemoglobin values are affected by age, sex, pregnancy, disease, and altitude.
Anemia is a blood disorder where patients do not receive sufficient oxygen due to an insufficient amount of red blood cells. It is considered the most common blood disorder. Anemia often a byproduct of other diseases/conditions has the ability to disrupt the body's ability to produce healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells (RBCs) are one of three types of blood cells that are produced in bone marrow from a process called hematopoiesis. Red Blood cells are important for are our body; they use hemoglobin an iron containing protein. Hemoglobin is very important because it contains four oxygen molecules which deliver oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Anemia can be divided into three different categories based off the cause. The groups include:
Increasing evidence suggests a potential role of iron (Fe) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fe is a strong pro oxidant leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting in elevated oxidative stress. In animal models, Fe excess might result in pancreatic oxidative stress and decrease insulin secretary capacity. Ferritin is a marker of Fe status in healthy individuals and an acute phase reactant as well; elevated levels of ferritin have been shown in diabetic patients. This HbA1c enhancing effect of iron deficiency and fall in HbA1c levels after iron supplementation has been previously documented in several studies [17, 18].
Blood plays an essential role in the overall function of the body. It consists of formed elements, leukocytes and erythrocytes. The erythrocytes are formed during a process called hematopoiesis within the red bone marrow. The condition of these formed erythrocytes can attribute to many different blood disorders. More specifically a commonly known disorder known as anemia. Anemia is denoted as a condition where either the red blood cells have decreased significantly or the amount of hemoglobin within the cells has decreased, which in turn will decrease the amount of oxygen that reaches the tissues during transportation. Anemia comes in many different forms. They all affect the transportation of oxygen as well as general body function in terms of physical health. To detect anemia, a red blood cell count may performed to obtain the hematocrit, or the volume of red blood cells in the total volume of blood. If the red blood cell count is low, this can be an indication of anemia.
Anemia is a decrease in the competence of blood to carry adequate amounts of oxygen to the tissue resulting from an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin (McKenzie & Otto, 2015). The Hemoglobin and hematocrit are used to screen for the presence of anemia. A small sample of blood in a capillary tube is needed for the hematocrit test and an anticoagulated tube of blood is used for the hemoglobin (Hematocrit, 2015). Both of these samples are then looked at using instruments in the laboratory to determine the amount of hemoglobin in the blood and the percent of hematocrit. Hemoglobin and
Iron is one of the essential minerals it is found in every cell in our bodies and is vital for both physical and mental health being. Iron is mainly needed for the transportation of oxygen throughout the body via in red blood cells, without healthy red blood cells, the human body can not get enough oxygen. Having a lack of red blood cells is called an ‘Iron deficiency’ the scientific name for it being anaemia.
“Anemia is the most common blood condition in the U.S. It affects about 3.5 million Americans. Women, young children, and people with chronic diseases are at increased risk of anemia” (Martin, 2016, p.1). Anemia is a disease of the blood that affects the ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen to the different parts of the body. Due to low iron levels in the blood, the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is not produced at the normal level.
Conclusions: It is pertinent to detect and treat subclinical iron deficiency in patients with CKD and to not over-investigate the minor haematological variations.