Why Heart Failure ( Hf ) Is The Inability Of The Heart

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Heart failure (HF) is the inability of the heart to pump adequately to meet the metabolic needs of the body (Jeffrey et al, 2007). It is caused by structural or functional abnormalities of the heart (NICE, 2003). The reduced contractility leads to a reduced stroke volume, and therefore the heart rate is increased to help maintain cardiac output. HF can either be chronic where it has been occurring over time or acute, where it happens suddenly. Around 900,000 people in the UK have HF, with almost as many as damaged hearts but with no symptoms (Petersen et al, 2002). The prevalence of HF increases steeply with age, with the average age at first diagnosis is at 76. The risk of HF is greater in males than in females in all age groups, but there are more females than males due to population demographics (Eggett, 2014). The cost of general practitioner consultations has been estimated at £45 million per year, with an additional £35 million for GP referrals to outpatient clinics. In addition to this, community-based drug therapy costs the NHS around £129 million per year. The hospital admissions due to HF are understood to increase by more than half in the next 25 years, largely due to the ageing population. This paper will focus on comparing and contrasting the classic verves contemporary understanding of HF, evaluating both the traditional concepts and more recent developments of the understanding of this condition. Traditional concepts of HF The understanding of HF has

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