Placenta previa is an implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment, near or over the internal cervical os and is usually seen in the third trimester. This tends to occur in 1 out of every 200 pregnancies and can be caused by many different reasons and there are a few different types. Placenta previa can be a very scary diagnosis for a pregnant mom but knowing what to look for, seeking medical treatment early and complying with doctors’ orders mothers can still have a very healthy baby. Placenta moves as the womb stretches and grows during pregnancy. Early in pregnancy it is very normal for the placenta to be low in the womb, but as pregnancy progresses, the placenta moves to the top of the womb (MedlinePlus, 2012). When the cervix opens for delivery the placenta should be close to the top of the womb and should occur by the third trimester. When the placenta covers the cervix this is called previa and there are three different forms of placenta previa. The first type is marginal. The placenta does not over the opening but is next to the cervix. The next type is partial and that is when the placenta covers part of the cervical opening. Lastly there is complete, the cervical opening is completely covered by the placenta. Depending on the severity of the previa it can make a vaginal delivery very complicated and will most likely result in the mother having a C-section.
Most commonly placenta previa will occur in women that have a uterus that is
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**Placenta previa** is a condition where the placenta blocks the cervix. Sometimes placenta previa has no symptoms at all but can sometimes cause sudden vaginal bleeding, pain in the lower back and abdomen and contractions.
“Sefa’s had what we call a grade two placental abruption, which means the placenta has become slightly detached from the uterine wall. Sefa and the baby are fine for the moment, but since the baby’s already full-term, I don’t want to take any chances. Sefa’s agreed to a C-section, which I feel is the best and safest course of action. But it needs to happen immediately.”
Though all these histological variations has been described in placentae of GDM patients, authorized texts states that it can be histologically normal in about half of the cases .When they are abnormal, diabetic placentae tend to be large and heavy, with large and oedematous umbilical cords. Villi in the larger placentae often show chorangiosis and distal villous immaturity ie, large distal villi with increased central capillaries, macrophages, and interstitial fluid25
On ultrasound there is a live fetus in cephalic presentation. Amniotic fluid is normal at 10 cm. Umbilical artery Doppler was within normal limits. BPP is 8/8. Transvaginal cervical length is 1.6 cm and decreases to 1.3 cm with pressure and there is a wide funnel noted. The placenta was anterior and again no clear evidence of abruption.
If the baby is born through the vagina, cord prolapse can occur. A cord prolapse is when the baby’s umbilical cord is preventing the baby from receiving adequate blood and oxygen while it is traveling through the birth canal (American Pregnancy).
A cesarean section is a surgical birthing procedure that requires the doctor to cut through the mother’s abdominal wall to remove the baby and the placenta. According to Kozhimannil (2013), from 1996 to 2011, the rate of cesarean sections increased from 20.7 percent to 32.8 percent. Many situations and circumstances can complicate birth and endanger the life of the mother and baby forcing a cesarean section. The position of the fetus is one of those dangers. The normal position of a fetus before delivery is head-down, in the cephalic position. If the baby is not in that position, vaginal delivery can be deadly for the mother and the fetus. There are a few positions that
On ultrasound there is a live fetus whose biometry is consistent with 20 weeks 5 days. A detailed anatomic survey was unremarkable but spine and RVOT were suboptimal. The placenta is posterior. Abdominal cervical length is reassuring.
On today’s evaluation the measurements are concordant with an EFW at the 50%ile. The amniotic fluid volume is normal, and the cervix is long and closed with no evidence of membrane funneling. A complete fetal anatomical survey was performed, and no major or minor malformations were noted at this time within the resolution of
Accreta has three distinct types; placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta. Placenta accreta represents 79% of accreta cases, while placenta increta represents 14% of cases and placenta percreta represents 7% of cases. In placenta accrete the villi are affixed to the myometrium of the uterus; in placenta increta the placental villi grow through the myometrium, and in placenta percreta the placenta villa grow through the myometrium and invade other structures such as the bladder and colon (Balayla & Bondarenko, 2012). The risks and complications are related to the degree in placental invasion (Figure
Pregnancy is normally the best and the happiest stage of any woman, but it can also be uncertain because anything can go wrong if you do not know exactly what to do. In order to understand the reasons of why Preterm Birth occurs, it is important to know what it is and how risky it can be. Preterm Birth is also known as Premature labor which mainly begins after “20 weeks but before 37 completed week’s gestations. Approximately 12.9 million babies worldwide are born too early every year representing an incidence of PTB of 9.6%” (Berghella, pp. 2, 8). Baby Center Medical Advisory Board says that about 12 percent of babies