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StatisticsQ&A Library32 CHAPTER1| Introduction to Statistics 19. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression a. Σχ b. (ΣΧ c Σ(X-1) d. Σ(X-1), who had experienced Tai Chi had less arthritis pain that those who had not participated in the course. a. Identify the independent variable for this study b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde pendent variable? c. Identify the dependent variable for this study X 3 2 d. What scale of measurement is used for the 5 dependent variable? 1 13. A tax form asks people to identify their annual income, number of dependents, and social security number. For each of these three variables, identify the scale of measurement that probably is used and identify whether the variable is continuous or discrete. 20. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression: a. ΣΧ b. Σχ cc Σ(Χ + 3 ) . X 14. Four scales of measurement were introduced in this 6 chapter: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio a. What additional information is obtained from -2 measurements on an ordinal scale compared to 0 measurements on a nominal scale? -3 b. What additional information is obtained from -1 measurements on an interval scale compared to measurements on an ordinal scale? 21. Two scores, X and Y, are recorded for each of n = 4 subjects. For these scores, find the value of each expression a. ΣΧ b. ΣΥ c. ΣΧΥ c. What additional information is obtained from mea- surements on a ratio scale compared to measure- ments on an interval scale? Subject X 15. Knight and Haslam (2010) found that office workers who had some input into the design of their office space were more productive and had higher well-being compared to workers for whom the office design was completely controlled by an office manager. For this study, identify the independent variable and the dependent variable. A 3 4 0 C -1 5 2 2 16. Explain why honesty is a hypothetical construct instead of a concrete variable. Describe how shyness might be measured and defined using an operational definition 22. Use summation notation to express each of the follow- ing calculations a. Add the scores and then add then square the sum b. Square each score and then add the squared values. c. Subtract 2 points from each score and then add the resulting values d. Subtract 1 point from each score and square the resulting values. Then add the squared values. 17. Ford and Torok (2008) found that motivational signs were effective in increasing physical activity on a college campus. Signs such as "Step up to a healthier lifestyle" and "An average person burns 10 calories a minute walk- ing up the stairs" were posted by the elevators and stairs in a college building. Students and faculty increased their use of the stairs during times that the signs were posted compared to times when there were no signs a. Identify the independent and dependent variables for this study b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde pendent variable? 23. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression a . Σχε b. (ΣΧ) c Σ(X-3) d. Σ(X-3)* X 1 6 2 18. For the following scores, find the value of each expression a. ΣΧ b. ΣΧ. c. ΣΧ+ 1 d. Σ(Χ + 1) 3 X 3 5 0 2Question

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