32CHAPTER1| Introduction to Statistics19. For the following set of scores, find the value of eachexpressiona. Σχb. (ΣΧc Σ(X-1)d. Σ(X-1),who had experienced Tai Chi had less arthritis pain thatthose who had not participated in the course.a. Identify the independent variable for this studyb. What scale of measurement is used for the independent variable?c. Identify the dependent variable for this studyX32d. What scale of measurement is used for the5dependent variable?113. A tax form asks people to identify their annualincome, number of dependents, and social securitynumber. For each of these three variables, identifythe scale of measurement that probably is used andidentify whether the variable is continuous or discrete.20. For the following set of scores, find the value of eachexpression:a. ΣΧb. Σχcc Σ(Χ + 3 ) .X14. Four scales of measurement were introduced in this6chapter: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratioa. What additional information is obtained from-2measurements on an ordinal scale compared to0measurements on a nominal scale?-3b. What additional information is obtained from-1measurements on an interval scale compared tomeasurements on an ordinal scale?21. Two scores, X and Y, are recorded for each of n = 4subjects. For these scores, find the value of eachexpressiona. ΣΧb. ΣΥc. ΣΧΥc. What additional information is obtained from mea-surements on a ratio scale compared to measure-ments on an interval scale?SubjectX15. Knight and Haslam (2010) found that office workers whohad some input into the design of their office space weremore productive and had higher well-being comparedto workers for whom the office design was completelycontrolled by an office manager. For this study, identifythe independent variable and the dependent variable.A340C-152216. Explain why honesty is a hypothetical construct insteadof a concrete variable. Describe how shyness might bemeasured and defined using an operational definition22. Use summation notation to express each of the follow-ing calculationsa. Add the scores and then add then square the sumb. Square each score and then add the squared values.c. Subtract 2 points from each score and then add theresulting valuesd. Subtract 1 point from each score and square theresulting values. Then add the squared values.17. Ford and Torok (2008) found that motivational signswere effective in increasing physical activity on a collegecampus. Signs such as "Step up to a healthier lifestyle"and "An average person burns 10 calories a minute walk-ing up the stairs" were posted by the elevators and stairsin a college building. Students and faculty increased theiruse of the stairs during times that the signs were postedcompared to times when there were no signsa. Identify the independent and dependent variablesfor this studyb. What scale of measurement is used for the independent variable?23. For the following set of scores, find the value of eachexpressiona . Σχεb. (ΣΧ)c Σ(X-3)d. Σ(X-3)*X16218. For the following scores, find the value of eachexpressiona. ΣΧb. ΣΧ.c. ΣΧ+ 1d. Σ(Χ + 1)3X3502

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32
CHAPTER1| Introduction to Statistics
19. For the following set of scores, find the value of each
expression
a. Σχ
b. (ΣΧ
c Σ(X-1)
d. Σ(X-1),
who had experienced Tai Chi had less arthritis pain that
those who had not participated in the course.
a. Identify the independent variable for this study
b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde
pendent variable?
c. Identify the dependent variable for this study
X
3
2
d. What scale of measurement is used for the
5
dependent variable?
1
13. A tax form asks people to identify their annual
income, number of dependents, and social security
number. For each of these three variables, identify
the scale of measurement that probably is used and
identify whether the variable is continuous or discrete.
20. For the following set of scores, find the value of each
expression:
a. ΣΧ
b. Σχ
cc Σ(Χ + 3 ) .
X
14. Four scales of measurement were introduced in this
6
chapter: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
a. What additional information is obtained from
-2
measurements on an ordinal scale compared to
0
measurements on a nominal scale?
-3
b. What additional information is obtained from
-1
measurements on an interval scale compared to
measurements on an ordinal scale?
21. Two scores, X and Y, are recorded for each of n = 4
subjects. For these scores, find the value of each
expression
a. ΣΧ
b. ΣΥ
c. ΣΧΥ
c. What additional information is obtained from mea-
surements on a ratio scale compared to measure-
ments on an interval scale?
Subject
X
15. Knight and Haslam (2010) found that office workers who
had some input into the design of their office space were
more productive and had higher well-being compared
to workers for whom the office design was completely
controlled by an office manager. For this study, identify
the independent variable and the dependent variable.
A
3
4
0
C
-1
5
2
2
16. Explain why honesty is a hypothetical construct instead
of a concrete variable. Describe how shyness might be
measured and defined using an operational definition
22. Use summation notation to express each of the follow-
ing calculations
a. Add the scores and then add then square the sum
b. Square each score and then add the squared values.
c. Subtract 2 points from each score and then add the
resulting values
d. Subtract 1 point from each score and square the
resulting values. Then add the squared values.
17. Ford and Torok (2008) found that motivational signs
were effective in increasing physical activity on a college
campus. Signs such as "Step up to a healthier lifestyle"
and "An average person burns 10 calories a minute walk-
ing up the stairs" were posted by the elevators and stairs
in a college building. Students and faculty increased their
use of the stairs during times that the signs were posted
compared to times when there were no signs
a. Identify the independent and dependent variables
for this study
b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde
pendent variable?
23. For the following set of scores, find the value of each
expression
a . Σχε
b. (ΣΧ)
c Σ(X-3)
d. Σ(X-3)*
X
1
6
2
18. For the following scores, find the value of each
expression
a. ΣΧ
b. ΣΧ.
c. ΣΧ+ 1
d. Σ(Χ + 1)
3
X
3
5
0
2
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32 CHAPTER1| Introduction to Statistics 19. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression a. Σχ b. (ΣΧ c Σ(X-1) d. Σ(X-1), who had experienced Tai Chi had less arthritis pain that those who had not participated in the course. a. Identify the independent variable for this study b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde pendent variable? c. Identify the dependent variable for this study X 3 2 d. What scale of measurement is used for the 5 dependent variable? 1 13. A tax form asks people to identify their annual income, number of dependents, and social security number. For each of these three variables, identify the scale of measurement that probably is used and identify whether the variable is continuous or discrete. 20. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression: a. ΣΧ b. Σχ cc Σ(Χ + 3 ) . X 14. Four scales of measurement were introduced in this 6 chapter: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio a. What additional information is obtained from -2 measurements on an ordinal scale compared to 0 measurements on a nominal scale? -3 b. What additional information is obtained from -1 measurements on an interval scale compared to measurements on an ordinal scale? 21. Two scores, X and Y, are recorded for each of n = 4 subjects. For these scores, find the value of each expression a. ΣΧ b. ΣΥ c. ΣΧΥ c. What additional information is obtained from mea- surements on a ratio scale compared to measure- ments on an interval scale? Subject X 15. Knight and Haslam (2010) found that office workers who had some input into the design of their office space were more productive and had higher well-being compared to workers for whom the office design was completely controlled by an office manager. For this study, identify the independent variable and the dependent variable. A 3 4 0 C -1 5 2 2 16. Explain why honesty is a hypothetical construct instead of a concrete variable. Describe how shyness might be measured and defined using an operational definition 22. Use summation notation to express each of the follow- ing calculations a. Add the scores and then add then square the sum b. Square each score and then add the squared values. c. Subtract 2 points from each score and then add the resulting values d. Subtract 1 point from each score and square the resulting values. Then add the squared values. 17. Ford and Torok (2008) found that motivational signs were effective in increasing physical activity on a college campus. Signs such as "Step up to a healthier lifestyle" and "An average person burns 10 calories a minute walk- ing up the stairs" were posted by the elevators and stairs in a college building. Students and faculty increased their use of the stairs during times that the signs were posted compared to times when there were no signs a. Identify the independent and dependent variables for this study b. What scale of measurement is used for the inde pendent variable? 23. For the following set of scores, find the value of each expression a . Σχε b. (ΣΧ) c Σ(X-3) d. Σ(X-3)* X 1 6 2 18. For the following scores, find the value of each expression a. ΣΧ b. ΣΧ. c. ΣΧ+ 1 d. Σ(Χ + 1) 3 X 3 5 0 2

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Hi! Thanks for posting the question. As your question has more than 3 parts, we have solved the first 3 parts for you. If you need help with another part, please re-post the question and let us know which part you need help with.

Step 2

Calculation: Parts a & b:

The symbol “Σ” denotes summation. Keeping this in mind, the calculations are done in the following table.

Remember that, in the table, whenever the “Σ” is used in any column, it denotes the sum of all numerical values before it in that particular column.

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Part a Part b 3 9 25 5 0 0 2 4 ΣΧ-10 | Σ-38

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Step 3

Calculation: Part c:

For Part c,

ΣX + 1

= 10 + 1

= ...

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