Asked Sep 28, 2019

Define the following and state the trends we see as we move left to right and top to bottom: 


Effective nuclear charge 

Atomic radius 

Ionization energy 

Electron affinity 


Expert Answer

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Step 1

Effective nuclear charge is defined as the net attractive positive charge of nucleus experienced by the outermost or valance electrons in an atom.

Effective nuclear charge increases across a period because the addition of an extra electron occurs in the same orbital due to which electrons are more tightly held by the nucleus. It decreases along the group because of the addition of an extra shell of electrons which decreases the attraction of electrons towards the nucleus.

Step 2

Atomic radius of an atom is the distance between the center of nucleus and the outermost shell of electrons. It is basically the measure of size of an atom.

Atomic radius decreases along the period because of an increase in the effective nuclear charge. An increase in the effective nuclear charge increases the attraction of outermost electrons towards the nucleus which results in the decrease in the atomic radius. Similarly, atomic radius increases along a group due to a decrease in the effective nuclear charge.

Step 3

Ionization energy is defined as the energy required to remove an electron from the outermost shell of electrons of an isolated gaseous atom.

Ionization energy increases along the period because of an increase in the effective nuclear charge. An increase in the effect...

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