Question
Asked Apr 14, 2019
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How do cells control gene expression? How do cell "switch" genes on/off? Draw a flow chart to match?

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Expert Answer

Step 1

The genes are regulated from time-to-time to make changes in the organisms. The way in which proteins and other non-protein products are synthesized depends on the gene expression. Gene expression allows for the cell to acquire variations, which may change the phenotypic traits of the organisms. This, in turn forms the basis of evolution in the organisms where, the timing of gene expression along with their function impose a profound effect on the organism as a whole.

Step 2

A cell undergoes various stages like transcription and translation, which have several phases for gene expression and their regulation. This process may get affected by histone modification, modification in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) through changes in base pairs and/or changes in the RNA (ribonucleic acid). Even after transcription and translation, the gene expression can be controlled, which is known as post-transcriptional and post-translational gene control.

Step 3

Prior to transcription (a), the changes in the chromatin structure can also influence gene expression. The histone proteins around which the DNA thread binds determines the extent of transcription. The DNA-histone complex unbinds in order to be transcribed. The processes like methylation (of DNA), deacetylation (of histones), and phosphorylation makes the nucleosome (DNA plus histones) more compact and, thus affect the rate of gene expression. For example, the histone acety...

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