Asked Jan 5, 2020

 What are the key differences in the way that alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are named?< 


Expert Answer

Step 1

The main difference between alkanes, alkenes and alkynes is ‘alkanes contain only single bonds, alkene contains at least one double bond and alkyne contains at least one triple bond.

Step 2

The basic rules for naming alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are listed as,

  1. First identify the longest chain of carbon atoms to select the prefix of the hydrocarbon such as but-, pent- or hex.
  2. Number the carbon chain in a way that the substituent, double bond or triple bond present in the hydrocarbon get the minimum possible number while naming the hydrocarbon.
  3. The preferences of all the substituents present in the hydrocarbon must be considered while numbering the carbon chain.
  4. Identify the suffix for the name of hydrocarbon, ane is used for alkanes, ene is used for alkenes and yne is used for alkynes.
  5. Use an appropriate prefix for each substituent present in the carbon chain such as hydroxy for OH group, cyclo for cyclic compounds and chloro for Cl group.
  6. The names of all prefixes present in the name of hydrocarbon must be written in the alphabetical order.
Step 3

Hence, the basic difference in the naming of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes is the numbering of hydrocarbon in order to ge...

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