Question
Asked Jul 14, 2019
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What atom in the hydronium ion,  H3O+ bears the positive charge?
 
a. Hydrogen and oxygen shares the charge by ratio 50: 50
 
b. The hydrogen atom bears the charge
 
c. Neither hydrogen nor oxygen bears the charge
 
d. The oxygen atom bears the charge
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Expert Answer

Step 1

Step 1-

Hydronium ion (H3O+) is pyramidal in shape.

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+ H H H

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Step 2

In H3O+, the positive charge is the formal charge . 

Thus, to find out which atom has the +1 formal charge, calculate the formal charge on oxygen atom and hydrogen atom (all three hydrogen atoms are equivalent) using the formula –

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Formal charge = Number of valence electrons - number of unpaired electrons (number of shared eletrons in a bond)

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