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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Place the following four compounds in order of increasing boiling point:

  1. (a) C5H12
  2. (b) CCl4
  3. (c) C2H6
  4. (d) Ne

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given compounds have to be arranged in the increasing order of the boiling point.

Concept Introduction:

The attractive force that withholds two molecules is called as intermolecular force. The influence of intermolecular forces depends on molar mass and the functional group present in the molecule.

Types and strength of intermolecular forces in decreasing order:

Ionic>Hydrogen bonding>Dipole-Dipole Interactions>Induced Dipole–Induced Dipole Forces

Ionic Interactions: The attractive force that holds two ionic compounds together with the help of ion-ion interactions is called as ionic interaction force

The positive charge end of one molecule is attracted to the negative charge of a neighboring molecule.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

Dipole-Dipole Interactions: The attractive force that holds two polar molecules with help of dipole moment present in them is called as Dipole–Dipole Interactions.

The partial positive charge end of one molecule is attracted to the partial negative charge of a neighboring molecule.

Induced Dipole–Induced Dipole Forces: The attractive force that holds two nonpolar molecules with help of temporary dipole moment present in them is called as induced dipole-induced dipole forces.

If intermolecular force is small the vapor pressure of the substance is high and the boiling point will be low.

Boiling point: It is the temperature at which liquid converts to vapor. At boiling point the vapor pressure of liquid and the pressure of the surroundings are equal.

Explanation

CCl4 has four CCl bonds and it is a nonpolar compound with induced dipole–induced dipole forces. The boiling point of CCl4 is 76.700C

C5H12 is an organic compound and the only intermolecular force present is induced dipole–induced dipole forces. The boiling point of C5H12 is 360C

C2H6 is a very small organic compound and only weak induced dipole–induced dipole forces is present in it

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