Chapter 15.8, Problem 46E

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8th Edition

James Stewart

ISBN: 9781285741550

Textbook Problem

The latitude and longitude of a point *P* in the Northern Hemisphere are related to spherical coordinates *ρ,*
*,ϕ* as follows. We take the origin to be the center of the earth and the positive *z*-axis to pass through the North Pole. The positive *x*-axis passes through the point where the prime meridian (the meridian through Greenwich, England) intersects the equator. Then the latitude of *P* is *α* = 90° - *ϕ°* and the longitude *is β =* 360° *-*
*°.* Find the great-circle distance from Los Angeles (lat. 34.06° N, long. 118.25° W) to Montréal (lat. 45.50° N, long. 73.60° W). Take the radius of the earth to be 3960 mi. (A *great circle* is the circle of intersection of a sphere and a plane through the center of the sphere.)

To determine

**To find:** The great circle distance from Los Angeles to Montreal.

Explanation

**Given:**

The latitude and longitude of Los Angeles is respectively

The latitude and longitude of Montreal is respectively

The latitude of the point *P* is
*P* is

The radius of the earth is 3960 mi.

**Formula used:**

The great circle distance between any two coordinate of three dimensional space is given by,

The dot product of two given points is

The spherical coordinates

**Calculation:**

Let *A* and *B* represents the three dimensional coordinates of the Los Angeles and Montreal respectively that is
*P* as shown below.

Sect-15.1 P-1ESect-15.1 P-2ESect-15.1 P-3ESect-15.1 P-4ESect-15.1 P-5ESect-15.1 P-6ESect-15.1 P-7ESect-15.1 P-8ESect-15.1 P-9ESect-15.1 P-10E

Sect-15.1 P-11ESect-15.1 P-12ESect-15.1 P-13ESect-15.1 P-14ESect-15.1 P-15ESect-15.1 P-16ESect-15.1 P-17ESect-15.1 P-18ESect-15.1 P-19ESect-15.1 P-20ESect-15.1 P-21ESect-15.1 P-22ESect-15.1 P-23ESect-15.1 P-24ESect-15.1 P-25ESect-15.1 P-26ESect-15.1 P-27ESect-15.1 P-28ESect-15.1 P-29ESect-15.1 P-30ESect-15.1 P-31ESect-15.1 P-32ESect-15.1 P-33ESect-15.1 P-34ESect-15.1 P-35ESect-15.1 P-36ESect-15.1 P-37ESect-15.1 P-38ESect-15.1 P-39ESect-15.1 P-40ESect-15.1 P-41ESect-15.1 P-42ESect-15.1 P-43ESect-15.1 P-44ESect-15.1 P-47ESect-15.1 P-48ESect-15.1 P-49ESect-15.1 P-50ESect-15.1 P-52ESect-15.2 P-1ESect-15.2 P-2ESect-15.2 P-3ESect-15.2 P-4ESect-15.2 P-5ESect-15.2 P-6ESect-15.2 P-7ESect-15.2 P-8ESect-15.2 P-9ESect-15.2 P-10ESect-15.2 P-11ESect-15.2 P-12ESect-15.2 P-13ESect-15.2 P-14ESect-15.2 P-15ESect-15.2 P-16ESect-15.2 P-17ESect-15.2 P-18ESect-15.2 P-19ESect-15.2 P-20ESect-15.2 P-21ESect-15.2 P-22ESect-15.2 P-23ESect-15.2 P-24ESect-15.2 P-25ESect-15.2 P-26ESect-15.2 P-27ESect-15.2 P-28ESect-15.2 P-29ESect-15.2 P-30ESect-15.2 P-31ESect-15.2 P-32ESect-15.2 P-33ESect-15.2 P-34ESect-15.2 P-35ESect-15.2 P-36ESect-15.2 P-37ESect-15.2 P-38ESect-15.2 P-39ESect-15.2 P-40ESect-15.2 P-45ESect-15.2 P-46ESect-15.2 P-47ESect-15.2 P-48ESect-15.2 P-49ESect-15.2 P-50ESect-15.2 P-51ESect-15.2 P-52ESect-15.2 P-53ESect-15.2 P-54ESect-15.2 P-55ESect-15.2 P-56ESect-15.2 P-57ESect-15.2 P-58ESect-15.2 P-59ESect-15.2 P-60ESect-15.2 P-61ESect-15.2 P-62ESect-15.2 P-63ESect-15.2 P-64ESect-15.2 P-65ESect-15.2 P-66ESect-15.2 P-67ESect-15.2 P-68ESect-15.2 P-69ESect-15.3 P-1ESect-15.3 P-2ESect-15.3 P-3ESect-15.3 P-4ESect-15.3 P-5ESect-15.3 P-6ESect-15.3 P-7ESect-15.3 P-8ESect-15.3 P-9ESect-15.3 P-10ESect-15.3 P-11ESect-15.3 P-12ESect-15.3 P-13ESect-15.3 P-14ESect-15.3 P-15ESect-15.3 P-16ESect-15.3 P-17ESect-15.3 P-18ESect-15.3 P-19ESect-15.3 P-20ESect-15.3 P-21ESect-15.3 P-22ESect-15.3 P-23ESect-15.3 P-24ESect-15.3 P-25ESect-15.3 P-26ESect-15.3 P-27ESect-15.3 P-28ESect-15.3 P-29ESect-15.3 P-30ESect-15.3 P-31ESect-15.3 P-32ESect-15.3 P-33ESect-15.3 P-34ESect-15.3 P-35ESect-15.3 P-36ESect-15.3 P-37ESect-15.3 P-38ESect-15.3 P-39ESect-15.3 P-40ESect-15.3 P-41ESect-15.4 P-1ESect-15.4 P-2ESect-15.4 P-3ESect-15.4 P-4ESect-15.4 P-5ESect-15.4 P-6ESect-15.4 P-7ESect-15.4 P-8ESect-15.4 P-9ESect-15.4 P-10ESect-15.4 P-11ESect-15.4 P-12ESect-15.4 P-13ESect-15.4 P-14ESect-15.4 P-15ESect-15.4 P-16ESect-15.4 P-17ESect-15.4 P-18ESect-15.4 P-19ESect-15.4 P-20ESect-15.4 P-21ESect-15.4 P-22ESect-15.4 P-23ESect-15.4 P-24ESect-15.4 P-27ESect-15.4 P-28ESect-15.4 P-29ESect-15.4 P-30ESect-15.4 P-32ESect-15.4 P-33ESect-15.5 P-1ESect-15.5 P-2ESect-15.5 P-3ESect-15.5 P-4ESect-15.5 P-5ESect-15.5 P-6ESect-15.5 P-7ESect-15.5 P-8ESect-15.5 P-9ESect-15.5 P-10ESect-15.5 P-11ESect-15.5 P-12ESect-15.5 P-13ESect-15.5 P-14ESect-15.5 P-21ESect-15.5 P-22ESect-15.5 P-23ESect-15.5 P-24ESect-15.6 P-1ESect-15.6 P-2ESect-15.6 P-3ESect-15.6 P-4ESect-15.6 P-5ESect-15.6 P-6ESect-15.6 P-7ESect-15.6 P-8ESect-15.6 P-9ESect-15.6 P-10ESect-15.6 P-11ESect-15.6 P-12ESect-15.6 P-13ESect-15.6 P-14ESect-15.6 P-15ESect-15.6 P-16ESect-15.6 P-17ESect-15.6 P-18ESect-15.6 P-19ESect-15.6 P-20ESect-15.6 P-21ESect-15.6 P-22ESect-15.6 P-25ESect-15.6 P-26ESect-15.6 P-27ESect-15.6 P-28ESect-15.6 P-29ESect-15.6 P-30ESect-15.6 P-31ESect-15.6 P-32ESect-15.6 P-33ESect-15.6 P-34ESect-15.6 P-35ESect-15.6 P-36ESect-15.6 P-37ESect-15.6 P-38ESect-15.6 P-39ESect-15.6 P-40ESect-15.6 P-41ESect-15.6 P-42ESect-15.6 P-43ESect-15.6 P-44ESect-15.6 P-45ESect-15.6 P-46ESect-15.6 P-47ESect-15.6 P-48ESect-15.6 P-51ESect-15.6 P-52ESect-15.6 P-53ESect-15.6 P-54ESect-15.7 P-1ESect-15.7 P-2ESect-15.7 P-3ESect-15.7 P-4ESect-15.7 P-5ESect-15.7 P-6ESect-15.7 P-7ESect-15.7 P-8ESect-15.7 P-9ESect-15.7 P-10ESect-15.7 P-11ESect-15.7 P-12ESect-15.7 P-13ESect-15.7 P-14ESect-15.7 P-15ESect-15.7 P-16ESect-15.7 P-17ESect-15.7 P-18ESect-15.7 P-19ESect-15.7 P-20ESect-15.7 P-21ESect-15.7 P-22ESect-15.7 P-23ESect-15.7 P-24ESect-15.7 P-25ESect-15.7 P-26ESect-15.7 P-27ESect-15.7 P-28ESect-15.7 P-29ESect-15.7 P-30ESect-15.7 P-31ESect-15.8 P-1ESect-15.8 P-2ESect-15.8 P-3ESect-15.8 P-4ESect-15.8 P-5ESect-15.8 P-6ESect-15.8 P-7ESect-15.8 P-8ESect-15.8 P-9ESect-15.8 P-10ESect-15.8 P-11ESect-15.8 P-12ESect-15.8 P-13ESect-15.8 P-14ESect-15.8 P-15ESect-15.8 P-16ESect-15.8 P-17ESect-15.8 P-18ESect-15.8 P-19ESect-15.8 P-20ESect-15.8 P-21ESect-15.8 P-22ESect-15.8 P-23ESect-15.8 P-24ESect-15.8 P-25ESect-15.8 P-26ESect-15.8 P-27ESect-15.8 P-28ESect-15.8 P-29ESect-15.8 P-30ESect-15.8 P-31ESect-15.8 P-32ESect-15.8 P-33ESect-15.8 P-34ESect-15.8 P-35ESect-15.8 P-36ESect-15.8 P-37ESect-15.8 P-38ESect-15.8 P-41ESect-15.8 P-42ESect-15.8 P-43ESect-15.8 P-44ESect-15.8 P-45ESect-15.8 P-46ESect-15.8 P-48ESect-15.8 P-49ESect-15.9 P-1ESect-15.9 P-2ESect-15.9 P-3ESect-15.9 P-4ESect-15.9 P-5ESect-15.9 P-6ESect-15.9 P-7ESect-15.9 P-8ESect-15.9 P-9ESect-15.9 P-10ESect-15.9 P-11ESect-15.9 P-12ESect-15.9 P-13ESect-15.9 P-14ESect-15.9 P-15ESect-15.9 P-16ESect-15.9 P-17ESect-15.9 P-18ESect-15.9 P-19ESect-15.9 P-20ESect-15.9 P-21ESect-15.9 P-22ESect-15.9 P-23ESect-15.9 P-24ESect-15.9 P-25ESect-15.9 P-26ESect-15.9 P-27ESect-15.9 P-28ECh-15 P-1RCCCh-15 P-2RCCCh-15 P-3RCCCh-15 P-4RCCCh-15 P-5RCCCh-15 P-6RCCCh-15 P-7RCCCh-15 P-8RCCCh-15 P-9RCCCh-15 P-10RCCCh-15 P-1RQCh-15 P-2RQCh-15 P-3RQCh-15 P-4RQCh-15 P-5RQCh-15 P-6RQCh-15 P-7RQCh-15 P-8RQCh-15 P-9RQCh-15 P-1RECh-15 P-2RECh-15 P-3RECh-15 P-4RECh-15 P-5RECh-15 P-6RECh-15 P-7RECh-15 P-8RECh-15 P-9RECh-15 P-10RECh-15 P-11RECh-15 P-12RECh-15 P-13RECh-15 P-14RECh-15 P-15RECh-15 P-16RECh-15 P-17RECh-15 P-18RECh-15 P-19RECh-15 P-20RECh-15 P-21RECh-15 P-22RECh-15 P-23RECh-15 P-24RECh-15 P-25RECh-15 P-26RECh-15 P-27RECh-15 P-28RECh-15 P-29RECh-15 P-30RECh-15 P-31RECh-15 P-32RECh-15 P-33RECh-15 P-34RECh-15 P-35RECh-15 P-36RECh-15 P-37RECh-15 P-38RECh-15 P-39RECh-15 P-40RECh-15 P-41RECh-15 P-42RECh-15 P-43RECh-15 P-44RECh-15 P-45RECh-15 P-47RECh-15 P-48RECh-15 P-49RECh-15 P-51RECh-15 P-52RECh-15 P-53RECh-15 P-54RECh-15 P-55RECh-15 P-56RECh-15 P-57RECh-15 P-58RECh-15 P-59RECh-15 P-60RECh-15 P-1PCh-15 P-2PCh-15 P-3PCh-15 P-4PCh-15 P-5PCh-15 P-6PCh-15 P-7PCh-15 P-8PCh-15 P-9PCh-15 P-10PCh-15 P-11PCh-15 P-12PCh-15 P-13P

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