   Chapter 16, Problem 51PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

What are the equilibrium concentrations of hydronium ion, acetate ion and acetic acid in a 0.20 M aqueous solution of acetic acid?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The equilibrium concentrations of hydronium ion, acetate ion and acetic acid in a 0.20 M aqueous solution of acetic acid has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Equilibrium constants:

The equilibrium constant is used to quantitative measurement of the strength of the acid and bases in the water.

Ka is acid constant for equilibrium reactions.

HA + H2OH3O++ A-Ka[H3O+][A-][HA]

Kb is base constant for equilibrium reaction.

BOH + H2OB++ OH-Ka[B+][OH-][BOH]

Explanation

The equation for the reaction of acetic acid with water and its equilibrium constant expression are

CH3COOH + H2CH3COO- + H3O+Ka(Acetic acid)= [H3O+][CH3COO-][CH3COOH]

Enter the ICE table the concentrations before equilibrium is established, the change that occurs as the reaction proceeds to equilibrium and the concentrations when equilibrium has been achieved.

CH3COOH + H2CH3COO- + H3O+I         0.20M          --              --                --C           -x              --             + x              + xE        (0.20-x)       --               x                   x

The Ka of the acetic acid is 1.8×10-5

Ka(Acetic acid)= [H3O+][CH3COO-][CH3COOH]=1

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