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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Classify each of the following carboxylic acids as (1) an unsaturated acid, (2) a hydroxy acid, (3) a keto acid, (4) a monocarboxylic acid, or (5) a dicarboxylic acid. More than one response may apply for a given acid.

  1. a. Lactic acid
  2. b. Glutaric acid
  3. c. Valeric acid
  4. d. Pyruvic acid

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Lactic acid has to be classified among the given options.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  1

If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl group means it is known as carboxyl group.  This can be represented as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  2

Apart from carboxyl group, there can be other functional group also that is present in the carboxylic acid.  They are known as polyfunctional carboxylic acids.  These occur naturally also.  Some of the important type of polyfunctional carboxylic acids are hydroxy acids, keto acids, and unsaturated acids.

Explanation

Structure of lactic acid can be given as,

The functional groups present in lactic acid can be shown as given below,

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Glutaric acid has to be classified among the given options.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  3

If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl group means it is known as carboxyl group.  This can be represented as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  4

Apart from carboxyl group, there can be other functional group also that is present in the carboxylic acid.  They are known as polyfunctional carboxylic acids.  These occur naturally also.  Some of the important type of polyfunctional carboxylic acids are hydroxy acids, keto acids, and unsaturated acids.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Valeric acid has to be classified among the given options.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  5

If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl group means it is known as carboxyl group.  This can be represented as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  6

Apart from carboxyl group, there can be other functional group also that is present in the carboxylic acid.  They are known as polyfunctional carboxylic acids.  These occur naturally also.  Some of the important type of polyfunctional carboxylic acids are hydroxy acids, keto acids, and unsaturated acids.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Pyruvic acid has to be classified among the given options.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  7

If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl group means it is known as carboxyl group.  This can be represented as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 5, Problem 5.38EP , additional homework tip  8

Apart from carboxyl group, there can be other functional group also that is present in the carboxylic acid.  They are known as polyfunctional carboxylic acids.  These occur naturally also.  Some of the important type of polyfunctional carboxylic acids are hydroxy acids, keto acids, and unsaturated acids.

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