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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 7, Problem 47GQ
Textbook Problem
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Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing ionization energy: Si, K, P, and Ca.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:    

The given atoms has to be arranged in increasing order of ionization energy

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation of Solution

Analyzing for Increasing ionization energy for given statement.

Generally, the Ionization energy increases across a period and decrease down a group.

Phosphorus and Silicon are belonging to the same period, thus Phosphorus shows high Electronegative than Silicon; Potassium and Calcium are belonging to the same period, thus, calcium shows high electronegative than Potassium.  From the ionization energies for given four atoms are  K (419 kJ/mol)< Ca (590 kJ/mol)<Si&

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Chapter 7 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 7.4 - 2. Which of the following ions has the largest...Ch. 7.4 - Which of the following species is most...Ch. 7.5 - Without looking at the figures for the periodic...Ch. 7.5 - What is the trend in sizes of the ions K+, S2, and...Ch. 7.5 - Locate the elements C, N, Si, and P in the...Ch. 7.6 - Give the electron configurations for iron and the...Ch. 7.6 - In hemoglobin, iron can be in the iron(II) or...Ch. 7.6 - Why are copper atoms (radius = 128 pm) slightly...Ch. 7.6 - In hemoglobin, the iron is enclosed by the...Ch. 7.6 - 1. Which of the following is an incorrect...Ch. 7.6 - 2. Which of the following is not the formula for a...Ch. 7.6 - The most common oxidation state of a rare earth...Ch. 7.6 - This textbook places lanthanum directly below...Ch. 7.6 - Gadolinium has eight unpaired electrons, the...Ch. 7.6 - Use the atomic radii of scandium, yttrium,...Ch. 7.6 - Europium oxide (Eu2O3) is used in the production...Ch. 7.6 - Neodymium is commonly used in magnets, usually as...Ch. 7 - Write the electron configurations for P and CI...Ch. 7 - Write the electron configurations for Mg and Ar...Ch. 7 - Using spdf notation, write the electron...Ch. 7 - Using spdf notation, give the electron...Ch. 7 - Depict the electron configuration for each of the...Ch. 7 - Using spdf and noble gas notations, write electron...Ch. 7 - Use noble gas and spdf notations to depict...Ch. 7 - The lanthanides, once called the rare earth...Ch. 7 - Americium, Am, is a radioactive element isolated...Ch. 7 - Predict electron configurations for the following...Ch. 7 - What is the maximum number of electrons that can...Ch. 7 - What is the maximum number of electrons that can...Ch. 7 - Depict the electron configuration for magnesium...Ch. 7 - Depict the electron configuration for phosphorus...Ch. 7 - Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas...Ch. 7 - Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas...Ch. 7 - Using orbital box diagrams, depict an electron...Ch. 7 - Using orbital box diagrams, depict an electron...Ch. 7 - Using orbital box diagrams and noble gas notation,...Ch. 7 - Using orbital box diagrams and noble gas notation,...Ch. 7 - Manganese is found as MnO2 in deep ocean deposits....Ch. 7 - One compound found in alkaline batteries is NiOOH,...Ch. 7 - Arrange the following elements in order of...Ch. 7 - Arrange the following elements in order of...Ch. 7 - Select the atom or ion in each pair that has the...Ch. 7 - Select the atom or ion in each pair that has the...Ch. 7 - Which of the following groups of elements is...Ch. 7 - Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements Na, Mg, O, and P. (a) Which...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements B. Al, C, and Si. (a) Which...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. (a) Place the...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. (a) Rank the...Ch. 7 - Identify the element that corresponds to each of...Ch. 7 - Identify the element that corresponds to each of...Ch. 7 - Explain why the photoelectron spectra of hydrogen...Ch. 7 - Sketch the major features (number of peaks and...Ch. 7 - These questions are not designated as to type or...Ch. 7 - The deep blue color of sapphires comes from the...Ch. 7 - Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas...Ch. 7 - The rare earth elements, or lanthanides, commonly...Ch. 7 - A neutral atom has two electrons with n = 1, eight...Ch. 7 - Element 109, now named meitnerium (in honor of the...Ch. 7 - Which of the following is not an allowable set of...Ch. 7 - A possible excited state for the H atom has an...Ch. 7 - The magnet in the following photo is made from...Ch. 7 - Name the element corresponding to each...Ch. 7 - Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing...Ch. 7 - Rank the following in order of increasing...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below about the elements A...Ch. 7 - Answer (he following questions about the elements...Ch. 7 - Which of the following ions are unlikely to be...Ch. 7 - Place the following ions in order of decreasing...Ch. 7 - Answer each of the following questions: (a) Of the...Ch. 7 - The following are isoelectronic species: Cl, K+,...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements Na. B. Al, and C with regard...Ch. 7 - Two elements in the second transition series (Y...Ch. 7 - The configuration for an element is given here....Ch. 7 - The configuration of an element is given here. (a)...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below about the elements A...Ch. 7 - Answer the questions below concerning ground state...Ch. 7 - Nickel(II) formate [Ni(HCO2)2] is widely used as a...Ch. 7 - Spinets are solids with the general formula M2+...Ch. 7 - The following questions use concepts from this and...Ch. 7 - Which ions in the following list are not likely to...Ch. 7 - Answer the following questions about first...Ch. 7 - The ionization of the hydrogen atom can be...Ch. 7 - Compare the configurations below with two...Ch. 7 - The bond lengths in Cl2, Br2, and I2 are 200, 228,...Ch. 7 - Write electron configurations to show the first...Ch. 7 - What is the trend in ionization energy when...Ch. 7 - (a) Explain why the sizes of atoms change when...Ch. 7 - Which of the following elements has the greatest...Ch. 7 - What arguments would you use to convince another...Ch. 7 - Explain why the first ionization energy of Ca is...Ch. 7 - The energies of the orbitals in many elements have...Ch. 7 - The ionization energies for the removal of the...Ch. 7 - Using your knowledge of the trends in element...Ch. 7 - The densities (in g/cm3) of elements in Croups 6B,...Ch. 7 - The discovery of two new elements (atomic numbers...Ch. 7 - Explain why the reaction of calcium and fluorine...Ch. 7 - Thionyl chloride. SOCl2, is an important...Ch. 7 - Sodium metal reacts readily with chlorine gas to...Ch. 7 - Slaters rules are a way to estimate the effective...

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