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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Compare the elements Na, Mg, O, and P.

  1. (a) Which has the largest atomic radius?
  2. (b) Which has the most negative electron attachment enthalpy?
  3. (c) Place the elements in order of increasing ionization energy.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atomic radius, increasing order of ionization energy and electro affinity properties has to be explained for the given sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg)Oxygen (O) and Phosphorus (P)

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

Explanation

(a). Analyzing for largest atomic radius values.

The atomic radii increase on moving across a period table (move to right to left), here the oxygen (O) has a smaller atomic radius when compare to other atoms of (Na, Mg and P) atom. So this reason atomic radius increases on moving down a periodic group, hence oxygen (O), Phosphorus (P) has P-block group. Further Magnesium (Mg) is a alkaline earth metal this atomic radius also smaller when compare to the Sodium atoms, the atomic radius images (Figure-1) are shown below.

     

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electro affinity properties has to be explained for the given sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg)Oxygen (O) and Phosphorus (P)

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The increasing order of ionization energy has to be explained for the given sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg)Oxygen (O) and Phosphorus (P)

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

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