Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Rank the following in order of increasing ionization energy: CI, Ca2+, and CI. Briefly explain your answer.

Interpretation Introduction


The given ions has to be ranked in increasing ionization energy .

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.


Generally, the ionization energy increases across a period and decreases down the group.

  • Electronic configuration of (Ca2+) ion:

AtomicnumberofCalcium(Ca)= 20spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s23p64s2]Orbital filling method       = [Ar]lossof2e [Ar]4s2

The (Ca2+) ion attain stable noble gas configuration (Argon); further removal of electron is very difficult and needs more energy. Hence, the ionization energy will be high.


       Figure 1

  • Let us consider the Chlorine (Cl) and Chloride (Cl-) ions.

As discussing the same element and its same ion,

                      AtomicnumberofChlorine(Cl)=17spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s23p5Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ne]3s23p5

The valence electrons are partially filled and it mostly prefers to gain an electron rather donating. But here, in converse about the ionization energy the removing electron is quite easy comparatively.

When (Cl) was gain to (Cl-) ions, it gain for one electron into outermost (3s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below

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