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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

Which of the following are predicted by the molecular orbital model to be stable diatomic species?

a. H2+, H2, H2, H22−

b. He22+, He2+, He2

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The stable diatomic species from the given list, on the basis of the molecular orbital model, are to be identified.

Concept introduction: The electronic configuration for multi-electron diatomic is written using the molecular orbitals, derived from the H2+ molecular ion.

The bond order is calculated by difference between the anti-bonding electrons and the bonding electrons by two. This can be stated as,

Bondorder=[(Electronsinbondingorbitals)(Electronsinanti-bondingorbitals)]2

As the bond order increases, the stability also increases. The bond order is directly proportional to the bond energy and inversely proportional to the bond length.

To determine: The most stable diatomic molecule/ion.

Explanation

The molecular orbital energy diagrams for H2+,H2,H2 and H22 are as follows,

For H2 ,

Figure 1

The bond order of H2 is calculated as,

Bond order =12(20)=1

Hence, the bond order of H2 is 1 . (1)

For H2+ ,

Figure 2

The bond order of H2+ is calculated as,

Bond order =12(10)=0.5

Hence, the bond order of H2+ is 0.5 . (2)

For H2 ,

Figure 3

The bond order of H2 is calculated as,

Bond order =12(21)=0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The stable diatomic species from the given list, on the basis of the molecular orbital model, are to be identified.

Concept introduction: The electronic configuration for multi-electron diatomic is written using the molecular orbitals, derived from the H2+ molecular ion.

The bond order is calculated by difference between the anti-bonding electrons and the bonding electrons by two. This can be stated as,

Bondorder=[(Electronsinbondingorbitals)(Electronsinanti-bondingorbitals)]2

As the bond order increases, the stability also increases. The bond order is directly proportional to the bond energy and inversely proportional to the bond length.

To determine: The most stable diatomic molecule/ion.

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