Triadic Co-parenting and Dyadic Marital and Parent-Child Interactions as Predictors of Children’s Later Externalizing Symptoms Essay

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Triadic Co-parenting and Dyadic Marital and Parent-Child Interactions as Predictors of Children’s Later Externalizing Symptoms
According to Family Systems Theory (FST), a family is an interconnected system, with each subsystem affecting every other subsystem. Thus, when predicting the effects of parenting on child outcomes, triadic family interactions should provide unique information, beyond that of the summed effects of mother-child and father-child interactions (Minuchin, 1985; Cox & Paley, 2003). Competitive co-parenting in triadic family interactions is characterized by one adult undermining the other in order to take control of parenting or to win favor with the child over the other parent (McHale, 1995). In this pattern, parents
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Triadic Co-parenting and Dyadic Marital and Parent-Child Interactions as Predictors of Children’s Later Externalizing Symptoms
According to Family Systems Theory (FST), a family is an interconnected system, with each subsystem affecting every other subsystem. Thus, when predicting the effects of parenting on child outcomes, triadic family interactions should provide unique information, beyond that of the summed effects of mother-child and father-child interactions (Minuchin, 1985; Cox & Paley, 2003). Competitive co-parenting in triadic family interactions is characterized by one adult undermining the other in order to take control of parenting or to win favor with the child over the other parent (McHale, 1995). In this pattern, parents send the child mixed messages and put the child in the middle of their conflicts. Maladaptive child outcomes, including externalizing symptoms, have been associated with both dyadic assessments of marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions (Morris, Silk, Steinberg, Myers, & Robinson, 2007; Rothbaum & Weisz, 1994), as well as triadic measures of competitive co-parenting (Shoppe, Mangelsdorf, & Frosh, 2001). However, few studies utilize both dyadic and triadic measures to assess the effects of maladaptive parenting simultaneously.
Extant designs of family intervention programs have focused on separate dyadic (marital, parent-child) or triadic (whole-family) relationships in regard to children’s externalizing behavior, however no such

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