others as defined by horizontal and vertical collectivism and horizontal and vertical individualism. A limitation of this study was that the participants were all from Cyprus and only consisted of students in the first through third grades.
In the second study, Ryherd (2014) examined the relationship between harsh parenting and externalizing behaviors at ages two to three years and then again at age five, to predict bullying and victimization beginning at age eight. The data was collected from the Family Transitions Project, which was a longitudinal study of 559 participants. Results indicated that harsh parenting and externalizing behaviors across a six-year timespan was associated with bullying in preadolescence (Ryherd, 2014). Externalizing…show more content… The ACT-RSK program is a prevention program for parents of young children focusing primarily on family violence and child abuse (Burkhart et al., (2013). The study conducted by Burkhart et al., (2013) examined the relationship among parent characteristics such as hostility, depression, parenting skills, and the child being bullying. The study examined 52 parents that had children between the ages of 4 thru 10 (Burkhart et al., 2013). Twenty-five parents were trained in effective parenting in the areas of nonviolent discipline, child development, anger management, social problem-solving skills, effects of violent media on children, and methods to protect children from exposure to violence through the ACT-RSK program and the remaining 27 parents received the usual treatment (Burkhart et al., 2013). Results indicated decreased bullying for children whose parents completed the ACT-RSK program and parental hostility was found to be the only significant parent predictor for child bullying (Burkhart et al., 2013). Findings of the study suggested that brief intervention that focus on parenting may serve as a prevention effort for bullying (Burkhart et al., 2013). Findings also suggested that parenting may be a predictor for childhood bullying and that reducing parental hostility could be an…show more content… The first study in this section was conducted by Cornell, Gregory, Huang, and Fan (2013). The participants of the study include ninth-grade students and teachers. Students provided reports of bullying victimization, and both students and teachers reported their perceptions of the prevalence of teasing and bullying at school, using the Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying (PTB) scale (Bandyopadhyay, Cornell, & Konold, 2009). Measures of peer victimization were obtained from 25 ninth-grade students and 10 ninth-grade teachers from Virginia public high schools. The study revealed that bullying, as perceived by both students and teachers, was predictive of dropout rates four years later (Cornell et al., 2013). The results of the study provided evidence that peer victimization in high school is an important factor in high school academic performance. The results of the study also contributed to knowledge about predicting dropout rates of high school students who have been exposed to bullying (Cornell et al.,