Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness of Regular and Irregular Students

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Rationale of the Study

Many educational researchers agree that the need for belonging is one of the most important needs of all for students to function well in all types of learning environments (Connell & Well Born, 1991; Deci & Ryan, 1991; Finn, 1989; Osterman, 2000). The feeling of belonging may have a direct and powerful influence on students’ motivation (Goodenow, 1993). For example, perceived support and the sense of belonging are expected to increase students beliefs in their success and accordingly to increase their academic motivation. In fact, studies consistently reveal that when students experience a sense of belonging in educational environments, they are more motivated, more engaged in
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Vallerand suggested that the need for relatedness involves feeling connected (or feeling that one belongs in a social milieu)(p.30). Goodenow proposed that a sense of belonging at school reflects the extent to which students feel personally accepted, respected, included and supported by others in the school`s social environment.(p.80).

Osterman (2000), found that satisfaction of the need for belonging in educational environment is significantly associated with students academic engagement and involvement in school and classroom activities, academic and social behaviours, motives and attitudes expectancies, values and goals, emotional functioning, and the development of fundamental psychological processes (eq. intrinsic motivation, self regulation, internalization and autonomy) and psychological outcomes like self concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the dependent variables which are Academic Motivation and Group Belongingness and the independent variable is the Type of Students which are categorized into: Regular students and Irregular students. Based on the literature, the researchers hypothesized that the type of student affects academic motivation and group belongingness. Regular students are more academically motivated and are most likely to feel a sense of belongingness compared to irregular students.


Statement of

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