S. et al (1984) Andragogy in Action. Applying modern principles of adult education, San Francisco: Jossey Bass. A collection of chapters examining different aspects of Knowles’ formulation
One of the main theories of adult education comes from Malcolm Knowles who is often credited for putting adult education and adult learning at the forefront because of the researches he did on the topic and many papers and books he wrote about it. His idea of how adults learn was based on five basic principles. These first is that the motivation for adults to learn is more intrinsic as they may have greater self esteem or need to learn to achieve a better quality of life. The second is that adults are more experienced and that experience can be useful in the learning process as it is a form of resource. The third is “self-concept: As a person matures his self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being” meaning adults are independent and will not rely on instructor for everything. The fourth is that there is an increased readiness to learn information that may prove useful in their daily lives and fifth, adult become more task or problem solving oriented instead of learning by subject matter. The principles of how adults learn are presented in a way
The world of adult learning was changed by Knowles’ (1973) when he identified four assumptions about andragogy, meaning “the art and science of helping adults learn” (Knowles, 1970, p. 42). These assumptions are: self-concept; experience; readiness; and orientation. Knowles later added two more assumptions; the critical need to know, and motivation (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2015; Knowles, 1980). Knowles’ second assumption, experience, plays a significant role for individuals to create, retain and transfer knowledge based upon prior knowledge and skill, (Argote, McEvily & Reagans, 2003, p. 575). I will search for evidence on how the elements of Knowles’ theory align with the knowledge retention and engagement.
The potential for learning is active throughout the course of one's lifespan. Academic learning is often associated with adolescence and early adulthood; however, adults are also compelled to "go back to school" to further their education in order to gain more employable skills, change their career path, or to fulfill a personal goal. Although adult learners are just as capable as understanding new information as younger learners, the adult learner typically has more personal obligations that can distract from studying and lower performance in the classroom (Davis, 2012). Adult learners must sharpen their study skills, which includes such tasks as: prioritizing commitments, time management, and engaging in study strategies that promote comprehension. Like all students, regardless of age, learners need to avoid procrastination in order to optimize their amount of study time. Avoiding procrastination, prioritizing, and engaging in effective study strategies are all part of the time management processes that will allow adult learners to better their study skills.
This article was very similar to the one that is in the above reflection. They talked about how adult learners come with a vast amount of experience that they need to make connections with what is being taught. They also talked about the different learning styles; visual, auditory, and kinesthetic and that it is important to use a variety of teaching strategies to meet the needs of every student. They talked about how adults are more willing to learn if they want to be there and if they want to improve their skills. This article discussed how adult have less time to actively engage in their learning because of other commitments and expressed the importance to make learning hands on and meaningful so that the adult learners time is not being wasted. They then provided tips for the people who facilitates adult learners. The two most important tips that I gained from this article is to provide adult learners with ample amount of time to practice what they learn and to make sure that the adult learners know the importance of what they are learning and how it can tie into their experiences.
Looking at learning theories through two different views was interesting. In the article, Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner, it was the basic guidelines and idea of adult learning theories. In the article, Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner, the article was written from the view of an adult student and covered what some of the first article had addressed. Author discussed about how some adult learners make their own learning theories. Also, saw some of the pressures that adult students can be faced with and they were addressed in the article. It was about how some adult learners make their own learning theories some of the pressures
The theory of adult learning is the assumptions about how adults learn. Emphasizes the value of the process of learning in adults ("Adult Learning Theory," 2007). Malcom Knowles and American practitioner and theorist of adult education defined is as an art and science of helping adults learn ("Adult Learning Theory," 2007). Knowles also defined six adult learning principles as adults are internally motivated and self-directed, adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences and are goal orientated. They also relevancy oriented and are practical learners who like to be respected when in the classroom ("Adult Learning Theory," 2007). As educators, we need to foster the adult learner’s internal motivation to learn. Develop a rapport with the adult learner, encourage them to ask questions and explore concepts. Some adult learners come with years of experience and knowledge, with this as an instructor or teacher we need to harvest this information and have them apply it to their
Knowles posits that adult learners are self directed and autonomous. They are goal oriented, practical and must see and understand the relevance of any training. Adults bring an abundance of experience and knowledge, experiential learning, with them. Most importantly, “…adults need to be shown respect.” (Lieb)
Adult Learning Theory: A learning theory developed by Malcolm Knowles which considers concepts of adult learning based on the needs and experiences of the learner (Knowles, 1990).
Adults differ from children in that they have spent years building up a foundation of life experience that serves as a starting point for any new learning whether formal or informal. Malcolm Knowles recognized this foundation when outlining his theory of Andragogy. He also highlighted that adults not only approach learning opportunities with prior experience, but also find motivation for learning within themselves, are able to learn independently and have the ability to integrate learning into their previously established experiences and find immediate application for their new learnings (Abela, 2009).
Like all theories the one Knowles propositioned of Andragogy was debated and critiqued with much discussion over the years. Debates on whether or not Andragogy could even be considered a theory for adult learning ensued throughout the 1980s. The main contention of this debate being that Andragogy may not even be considered a theory, rather a basic principle following of good learning practices. Another critique that continues to present day is the assumption that all adults share the same characteristics in learning. Knowles eventually pitted Andragogy vs. Pedagogy and admitted that both were perfectly applicable to both adults and children depending on the situation.
ADULT LEARNING THEORY 3 significant mentors in his life—Eduard Lindeman. By reading Lindeman’s Meaning of Adult Education, he obtained a profound understanding of adult education, which later became his source of inspiration and concepts. Major Works In 1943, Knowles was recruited into the Navy, and began to read extensively in the field of adult education, which contributed to his final decision to undertake a master’s program at the University of Chicago (Smith, 2002). His adviser at the University of Chicago was Cyril O. Houle, who had been a role model in rigorous learning for Knowles. Carl Rogers, “the founder of 'client-centered' or 'non-directive' therapy” (Smith, 2004, para. 1), and Arthur Shedlin, an associate of Rogers, had also exerted a great influence on Knowles—he began to consider learning as an exciting incident. In 1949, Knowles gained his Master’s degree and published his first book Informal Adult Education, which was also his master thesis (Smith, 2002). In 1951, he became “executive director of the newly formed Adult Education Association. ” and also “attended a couple of summer sessions of the National Training Laboratories in 1952 and 1954” (Smith, 2002, para. 7). The founders of the labs—Kenneth Benne, Leland Bradford, Ronald Lippett and Kurt Lewin—consequently impacted Malcolm and his wife, Hulda, who co-authored books on leadership (1955) and
The adult learning theory Also known as andragogy is the concept of Adult learning as a science in the field of education. Created by Malcolm Knowles , the theory is comprised of four different concepts. A fifth concept was later added by Knowles. within these different concepts, Knowles set forth compilation of expectations for educators within the Adult Education community. Firstly, he suggests setting a corporative climate in the classroom for learning. (Knowles, 1984, p.76) An assessment of the learners needs and a compilation of objectives and educational activities to help learner reach needs
My impression of adult education has changed immensely. First and foremost, the first lesson learned that teaching adults are a separate, intensive, and long debated process. Portions of certain theories learned illustrated below. I have extended knowledge about Meizrow (Transformational Learning) and Knowles (Andragogy). The six key features of Adult Learners are:
Adult learners use their life experiences and knowledge to make connections which allows adults to have a better understanding of a specific concept. " Adults have lived longer, seen and done more, have the tendency to link their past experiences to anything new and validate new concepts based on prior learning" (Pappas, 2013). As a teacher, I am constantly asking my students to make connections so they can relate to what they are reading or learning about in class. This is a skill. Adult learners have had the time to develop this skill and master it. This is yet another concept children must learn so they can use it in their adult life to effectively learn.