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American Psychiatric Association, 2000

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According to the DSM IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), the diagnostic category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills. Parents may note symptoms as early as infancy, although the typical age of onset is before three years of age. Symptoms may include problems with using and understanding language; difficulty relating to people, objects, and events; unusual play with toys and other objects; difficulty with changes in routine or familiar surroundings; and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns. Males are two times more likely to be diagnosed with PDD than females (Stewart, 2003). Autism, a…show more content…
In the first section of this paper I examine the research on the etiology of ASD. Current research on etiology focuses specifically on PDD and ASD as one category, not looking at the differences among individual cases. There is little information on PDD-NOS as a separate condition under PDD or ASD. Examining the literature on the etiology of ASD is useful for understanding PDD-NOS. This body of literature may be important in one day distinguishing PDD-NOS as a separate syndrome in the PDD category.
In the second section of this review, I focus on treatment. I consider interventions for the PDD-NOS category because the prognosis for this population can be greatly affected by the presenting symptoms as well as the chosen interventions. While certain interventions have proven useful for children with autism or Asperger’s syndrome, PDD-NOS requires a multi-modal approach that can incorporate strategies used with the autistic population as well as the behavioral interventions used with Asperger’s syndrome. Clinicians working with children diagnosed as PDD-NOS have to be creative, flexible and prepared to use a wide array of interventional tools in order to serve this population.
The prognosis section of this paper focuses on information regarding childhood outcomes related to behaviors and speech and briefly discusses adult outcomes. There is a lack of research on the prognosis of children with ASD in to adulthood. Due to the rise in prevalence of ASD and
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