Antimicrobial Activity of the Phytochemical Constituents of Chrysophyllum Albidum G.Don Holl. (African Star Apple) Plant

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Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenol and cardic glycoside present in the various parts of Chrysophyllum albidium plant were investigated. These phytochemical were determined quantitatively and tested against staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, C. tetani, and the fungus; candida albicans. Most the plant parts were found to contain alkaloids, tannins, phenols and flavonoids except for the absence of cardic glycosides in the root, tannins in leaves, and phenol in seed. The significance of the plant parts in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these phytochemicals were discussed with respect to the role of these plant parts in
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The extracts were filtered using Whatman filter paper No 42 (125 mm).

Collection of microorganisms
The slants of different microorganisms were obtained from a laboratory stock at the Department of Microbiology University of Ibadan. These microorganism are staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, C. tetani,, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, and the fungus, candida albicans.

Phytochemical screening
Chemical tests were carried out on the aqueous extract and on the powdered specimens using standard procedures to identify the constituents as described by Sofowara (1993), Trease and Evans (1989) and Harborne (1973).
Test for alkaloids: 1cm3 of 1 % HCl was added to 3cm3 of each extract in a test tube. Each extract treated with a few drop of Meyer’s reagent. A creamy white precipitate was observed indicating the presence of alkaloids
Test for tannins: About 0.5 g of the dried powdered samples was boiled in 20 ml of water in a test tube and then filtered. A few drops of 0.1% ferric chloride was added and observed for brownish green or a blue-black colouration.
Test for saponin: About 2 g of the powdered sample was boiled in 20 ml of distilled water in a water bath and filtered. 10ml of the filtrate was mixed with 5 ml of distilled water and shaken vigorously for a stable persistent froth. The frothing was mixed with 3 drops of olive oil and shaken vigorously, then observed for the

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