Anxiety And Depression, With Support From Meta Analyses

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anxiety and depression, with support from meta-analyses (Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Peckham, McHugh, & Otto, 2010). Cognitive biases are also frequently explored in patients with chronic pain, and are predicted by a number of theoretical models, in addition to Beck’s schema theory, such as the Self-Regulatory Executive Function theory (SREF), the Fear-Avoidance (FA) model, and the Misdirected Problems-Solving (MPS) model. The SREF models argues that metacognitive factors like beliefs about worry, cognitive confidence, and the need to control thoughts direct and focus one’s attention on disease-related information ((Wells & Matthews, 1996). The FA model suggests that fear of pain leads to hyper-vigilance towards pain sensations and avoidance …show more content…

The illness schema, comprised of the affective and behavior consequences of the illness, has been shown to have an impact on goal achievement and quality of life (Covic et al., 2004). The self-schema, including self-relevant descriptions and episodes of behaviors, is related to self-esteem. The self-schema also ensures that self-relevant information is processed first (Pincus & Morley, 2001). The SEMP model argues that the pain schema is enmeshed with the illness and the self schema when pain experience is continual and remitting. Because pain sensations are self-relevant for chronic pain patients, prioritized processing of pain information produces congruent cognitive biases. In certain cases, preference is also given to generally negative information in processing (Pincus & Morley, 2001). Numerous research has observed cognitive biases, including attentional bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias in chronic pain patients, as predicted by the models mentioned above. Attentional bias has been most commonly explored and demonstrated in a range of paradigms. Two meta-analyses of attentional bias, one on the visual-probe task (Schoth, Nunes, & Liossi, 2012) and the other on the modified Stroop paradigm (Roelof et al., 2002), concluded that there is ample evidence showing chronic pain patients selectively

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