Mishel’s Uncertainty of Illness Theory is a middle-range theory (Black, 2014). This means the theory is not overly broad or narrow. The theory was developed from studying men with prostate cancer who were watchfully waiting for the advancing signs of their disease (Black, 2014). The theory has three main components, which incorporate: the antecedents of uncertainty, impaired cognitive appraisal, and coping with uncertainty in illness (Neville, 2003). The antecedents of Mishel’s theory are the stimulus frame, cognitive capacities and event congruence (Neville, 2003). The stimulus frame concerns three parts including: symptom pattern, event familiarity and event congruency (Neville, 2003). Symptom pattern may be when symptoms of …show more content…
This study is based on uncertainty management intervention (UMI) treatment option. The candidates for the study were men who are 65 and older with a low stage and grade prostate disease. The UMI study used a system of nursing telephone follow-up care to help patients with their psychosocial and educational disease needs (Kazer, Whittemore, & Baily, 2010). The nursing intervention with the patients focused on “helping the patients examine illness-related events and restructure their beliefs… to incorporate uncertainty into a new life view.” (Kazer, Whittemore & Baily, 2010) The nursing intervention’s goal was to create a cognitive plan from events that are uncertain and use the plan to change their view of the uncontrollable situation presented to them.
Miho Suzuki’s study aimed to explore the relationships between uncertainty and the quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer in pre- and post- treatment periods. Suzuki intended to discover whether patients with head and neck cancer experience less uncertainty when they think they are able to express their concerns to their doctor. Also, Suzuki wanted to assess if the patients experienced less uncertainty when involved with treatment decision-making and sufficient information about symptoms. Suzuki used a prospective correlational
Throughout our lives, many of us crave and strive to be loved and cherished. Many find purpose and happiness when they share reciprocated affection with another person. Heartbreak often occurs when what we wished for in a relationship is not returned in the same manner. Miranda in “Sexy” by Jhumpa Lahiri felt this at the end of her relationship with a married man named Dev. He had treated her unlike anyone else before. This caused her to believe their relationship meant the same to him as it did to her, despite him being married to another women. Mr. Kapasi in “Interpreter of Maladies” found affection towards a woman who was cold towards her family, but was warm and showed great interest in him. He had started to believe she was different
Hope is evident when a person desires to avoid the feeling of despair and emotion that is associated with an uncertain future. Hope also enables a person to overcome difficult stages of their life; it gives the power of endurance and adaptability. In older adults, the values of past experiences are used to sustain their hope. Before nurses can give hope to their patients, it is important to understand what hope is and how to incorporate it in across the life span. Having a positive mindset alleviates emotional and physical pain and makes the recovery process a much pleasant one.
Interpreter of Maladies focuses on communication as one of the universal themes throughout the book. The stories demonstrate how communication is the key to the success or failure of relationships. While there are instances when communication is effectively employed and therefore enabled the characters to build strong and intimate connections, there are examples of where communication was superficial or ineffectual, leading to unstable, limited relationships. Jhumpa Lahiri illustrates the importance of communication within relationships by allowing readers to experience the consequences and advantages that have developed as a result throughout the short
As technology continues to evolve, our understanding of sickness and disease grows as well. Modern day technology is able to tell doctors what caused the disease and in ideal situations how to cure it. Recent scientists have begun to look at the desire to kill as a disease. This theory poses an interesting concept that if it is a disease, then maybe there is a cure that prevents serial killers from killing. In Christer Claus and Lars Lidberg’s article they look at the desire to kill as a disease. The article states that while using Schahriar Syndrome as a model, they are able to explain even the most vicious human behaviours, such as planned and repeated homicide (Claus/Lidberg 428). This disease is broken down into five main characteristics: omnipotence, sadistic fantasies, ritualized performance, dehumanization, and symbiotic merger. These five traits are not only common among people with the disease, but among serial killers as well (428). The article states that after a successful killing, the killer is surprised. When the killer is able to get away with murder, a sense of amazement consumes them. Once the killer has repeatedly killed their victim and escaped the authorities, they begin to feel like they are omnipotent. As time goes on, over fifty percent of serial killers experience sadistic fantasies that make them want to keep committing the crimes. Each killer uses their success and sadistic fantasies to form a certain ritual. They begin to believe that if they are
The HBM is founded on four perceptions or core constructs. The first is that of perceived seriousness. This relates to an individuals’ perception of the severity of an illness, not just in medical terms but also possibly in terms of its’ effect on their lives or livelihood (Edberg 2007). If Thomas does
According to Glanz, Rimer, and Viswanath (2008) the Health Belief Model attempts to explain why people do or do not engage in specific health behaviors such as taking action to prevent, screen for, or to control illness conditions through concepts including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits and barriers to a behavior, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Perceived susceptibility is defined as a person’s beliefs about the likelihood of getting a disease or condition. Perceived severity is defined as a person’s feelings about the seriousness of contracting an illness or of leaving it untreated. Perceived benefits are described as influencing whether a person’s perceived susceptibility will lead to behavior change. Perceived Barriers are described as
In their article“Assessment of Distress and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients Over the Course of Chemotherapy”, they hope to inform potential cancer nurses about the pain that different patients of different backgrounds go through. They record the pain and quality of life from before treatment begins, while treatment is going on, and after treatment. The authors do not explain how adolescents thought process help or inhibit them from making the right choice, but it shows that they are taking the what the patients say to heart. This is the reason that I chose this article. Also the range of education varied through the study participants. Some patients only had a level of elementary school. If these people are capable enough to not only understand the consequences of treatment , but they also understood the conditions of the study that they are participating in. This article also seems helpful because it is a part of a peer reviewed academic journal. So it is understood that the two author really know what they are talking about.
Symbolism is an important factor in many stories. In “Interpreter of Maladies”, the author, Jhumpa Lahiri, uses the symbol to represent her idea. In the story, the main character, Mr. Kapasi, is an Indian tour guide who accompanies the Das family on their way to see the Sun Temple at Konarak. Mr. Kapasi is an intelligent and knowledgeable man. He was once fluent in many languages but now speaks only English. He wanted to be a diplomat once but now he works as an interpreter in a doctor’s office. Mr. and Mrs. Das are young couple with three kids. Mr. Kapasi feels that they are more likely to be brother and sister to the kids than parents. The story’s central conflict focuses on the marriage situation because both the protagonist, Mr.
Background: Cancer is one among the life threatening diseases in present days it has biological, psychological and sociological impact on individual’s life. People living with this deadly disease have numerous psychological abnormalities like stress, depression and anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate the levels of anxiety and depression among cancer and non cancer patients. Methods: 80 patients were randomly selected among them 40 were cancer patients and 40 were non cancer patients. The Sinha’s Anxiety scale and Depression scale constructed by Karim & Tiwari was used to measure the anxiety and Depression among patients. For statistical analysis independent sample t-Test was applied. Findings: The results show significant differences between the mean scores of cancer and non cancer patients in respect to anxiety and depression. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we may concluded that cancer patients have higher levels of anxiety and depression than non cancerous patients.
The World Heath Organization defines health as being a state of wholeness in a person’s mental, physical, and social well being (Gurung, 2014). Different models of health are used worldwide to assist in achieving this state. Two widely used models of health in the United States include the biomedical model of health and the biopsychosocial model of health. They both strive to help individuals and communities achieve wholeness, while approaching this in different manners. Each model of health has strengths, drawbacks, and practical uses in the field of medicine.
The phenomenology of illness and disease explains on how it is like to have a disease or illness. Getting diagnosed with a disorder or disease can be very confusing and stressful. Getting all the information needed to be able to understand your diagnosis can help overcome stress and clear all confusion from your mind. Maintaining a healthy diet and healthy mind will help understanding your body and keep it from illnesses.
Conner and Norman, 1995 describe the health belief model as ‘the oldest and most widely used model in health psychology’. It originated in the 50’s and was developed further by Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegals throughout the 1980’s for health education programmes and to predict different health behaviours and responses to treatments. The four terms that are the basis for the HBM are perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, perceived severity and perceived benefits. The behaviour of the individual depends on their belief that they are susceptible to a health problem, how serious they deem it to be, whether they think that treatment will benefit them and if there are barriers that may get in the way.
theory that if a part of the body goes wrong it should be fixed or
Illness perceptions are the organized cognitive representations and the beliefs that service users all have about their illness. These perceptions have been found to be important determinants of our behaviour and they have been associated with numerous important outcomes, like, treatment adherence and functional recovery.