Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) that is very complex and involves many different and separate physical and mental disorders. Researchers have long been puzzled by autism, or childhood autism as it is often referred to. This severely disabling disorder affects approximately 80,000 children in the United States and is usually diagnosed by therapists and psychologists before the onset of two and a half years of age.
Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.
Most parents wonder what is the next chapter for their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after they graduate from high school. For some individuals, it is to move onto higher education. As stated by Cai and Richdale (2015), the USA has one of the lowest rates of college enrollment for individuals with ASD, with over 50% of these individuals being in neither education nor employment following their secondary school (p. 31). Individuals with ASD who move forward in gaining a higher education will have to learn to adapt and determine how to transition into higher education. Mentioned by Cai and Richdale (2015), a USA national survey illustrated poor outcomes from transitioning from secondary school into adult-hood. The findings show that after young adults with ASD left the public school system, 80% live at home, 32% attended postsecondary education, only 6% had competitive jobs, and 21% had no employment or education experience at all. In addition, 40% reported having no friends. (p. 32)
Autism is a disorder characterized by significant problems in communication and social functioning. Autism is actually called Autism Spectrum Disorder and encompasses a broad range disabilities such as Asperger syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome, and Pervavasive Development Disorder (Dunlap & Fox, n.d.). There are also varying degrees of the disorder from low-functioning (no communication and no social interaction) to
Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
Autistic infants often show little or no interest in other people and lack typical social behaviors. For example, they may not smile at their mother's voice or make eye contact with caregivers. Autistic children fail to develop normal relationships with their parents, brothers or sisters, and other children. Often they seem unaware of the needs and feelings of other people, and may not respond if another person is hurt or in distress. They also fail to make friends.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of conditions of the brain development. (Vries, 2015). The main characteristic of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is that they have difficulties to adapt and interact with other people. Also, individuals with Autism have problems with their development of verbal and nonverbal communication. They show a repetitive behavior that is usually recognized during the first three years of life. Approximately one of sixty eight children are affected with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States. (Vries, 2015).
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a name that is used for a group of developmental disorders. Children with Autism have great difficulty with bonding emotionally with others, they find it hard to make eye contact with others, communicate their feelings and express themselves to the people who are closet to them. Autism effects the brain which inhibits these children to interact, communicate, and concentrate. A child with Autism will display behavior such as, repetitive behavior, rocking, flapping hands, repetition of words, and will want to always arrange objects.
The term autism spectrum disorders derive various definitions depending on the type of professional is questioned. A medical definition of autism spectrum disorders provided by the Mayo Clinic in 2014 states, “an autism spectrum disorder is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child 's ability to communicate and interact with others. It also includes restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. These issues cause significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning.” This is not the definition that will be referenced in this paper. The definition that is applicable to this paper is the educational definition, mandated by federal law to be used in public schools. The educational definition of autism spectrum disorders according to the book Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education by Hallahan, Kauffman, and Pullen is “a disability wherein symptom fall on a continuum from relatively mild to severe; DSM-5 divides them into two general domains: ‘social communication impairment’ and ‘repetitive restricted behaviors.’” A
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized in the developmental disabilities in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association. 2013). In the newest addition of the DSM- 5 the code ASD was created to include all previous name diagnoses; autism disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, rett syndrome, and Asperger syndrome. The U.S center of Disease Control (CDC) reported that 1 in 68 children have been diagnosed with ASD (2016). CDC points toward 1.2 million individuals are diagnoses under the age of 21. Autism is costing society 35 billion in direct and indirect cost for all individuals over their life time (Ganz, 2007). The major of the money spent directly and indirectly are for individuals under the age of 21 (Ganz 2007). Once individuals reach the age of 21 the type of services which’s to independent skills, living skill, and vocational skills. The amount of support and services in this area are decreased. There is little support on the success of adult individuals in vocational placement. The purpose of this paper is to look at the quality of life domains by Schalock (2000) within the realm of employment. The domains with reported low and high qualities to improve the area and seek long-term employment to meet their needs. Programs such as, Employ-able, which provides support for people with ASD includes assistance in career development for individuals who are becoming resilient maybe
Autism is a developmental disability that affects all areas of behavior and perception. Approximately 10 out of every 10,000 children are diagnosed with autism and four out of five are males. Autism is the third most common developmental disability, more common than Down Syndrome. Children with Autism are characterized by impairment in several areas of development such as: Cognitive, Language, Play/Socialization skills and exhibit many challenging behaviors. Behavior Patterns of Autism:
Autism spectrum disorder and autism are both a group of complex disorders of the brain development and disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Also known as ASD, it varies in the different ways it affects a child. Some children may be gifted and others might have challenges learning and might require more help in their daily activities. People with autism may often have issues with communication, emotional and social skills. Usually typical symptoms would be repetitive behaviors and do not like any change of their daily routines. They have different ways of learning, react differently to things that would be otherwise normal for others. Signs of this disorder will likely show from early childhood
Neurodevelopmental Disorders are conditions that become evident in early developmental stages before children are introduced to elementary school (APA, 2013). These disorders have developmental deficiencies that restrict children from “personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning” (APA, 2013, pp. 31). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, has been represented as a complex brain abnormality that effects children’s cognitive, behavioral, and social performance (APA, 2013; Sears, 2010). Autism has become a growing global phenomenon affecting children among nations (Currenti, 2010; Sears, 2010). The objective of this paper is to provide a prevailing overview of this neurological disorder that has affected many children by analyzing the prevalence, diagnostic criteria, diagnosable problems and the causes of ASD, and acceptable evidence-based treatment options.
It is important to understand some facts about autism. Autism is not a single disorder, but a spectrum of closely-related disorders with a shared core of symptoms. This means that to some degree, everyone with autism has problems with social skills, communication, flexibility behavior, and empathy (Smith, Melinda). All though this is true the symptoms are
Children With Autism Children with autism have the possibility to improve greatly, and some even overcome the effects of autism if appropriate therapies are begun early enough. A multifaceted disorder, autism has long baffled professionals and parents alike. At a point in