Bipolar Disorder, Formerly Known As Manic-Depression, Is

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Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a mental disorder. This disorder causes the individual to experience severe mood swings, from elation to depression. Individuals with bipolar disorder can experience serious changes in thinking, energy and behaviour. The different states of those with bipolar experience are referred to as ‘episodes’. These episodes can last days, weeks or months, depending on the severity of the episode. There are three main types of episodes, they are mania, depressive and psychotic states. Mania describes the state in which the individual experiences extreme happiness and euphoria, a ‘high’ of sorts. People who are having a manic episode display symptoms such as; feeling full of energy, not eating …show more content…

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is still unknown, however, there are many factors which that can work together to make it more likely for an individual to develop bipolar disorder. These factors vary from each person, therefore, one factor that produces the onset of bipolar disorder may not cause someone else to develop the illness. It is believed there may be a correlation between genetics and bipolar disorder. Researchers have theorised that there is a genetic predisposition for the disorder as it tends to run in families, with Kerner stating, “the heritability of bipolar disorder based on concordance rates for bipolar disorder in twin studies has been estimated to be between 60% and 80%.” (Kerner 2014). Despite these figures, other studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive in proving the linkage. Studies have shown environmental factors play a major role in the development of bipolar disorder. One of the most significant environmental factors observed in relation to the onset of bipolar disorder is childhood trauma or abuse. This can be observed by looking at the study conducted by Alvarez et al which, “examined 102 patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder and showed that nearly half (47.5%) of these patients had suffered childhood abuse.” (E. Brietzke et al. 2002). Childhood abuse is a common cause of various mental illnesses and disorders.
The perception of mental health has always been a very

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