Border Policies on Tribal Lands

2157 WordsJan 31, 20189 Pages
Initially, borders were used to define a state's territory, which in return was used to measure a state's power (Madsen 280). Within a territory a state is said to have sovereignty over the land and the people it inhabits. The concept of state sovereignty can be attributed to nationalism. As nationalism has risen in importance since the mid-18th century, so have borders. Up until the Europeans arrived in the Americas in 1492, borders were non-existent, at least not in a modern definition of a state border. However, since then, there has been a severe transformation of the definition of borders, but more importantly, also in the existence of borders in the Americas. “Today borders are increasingly analyzed in terms of their social implications as instruments of state power and reflection of societal discourse and prejudice” (Maden 280). The “United States of America has 7,400 miles of international boundary” dividing U.S. territory from Canada in the North and Mexico in the South. (Butts 383). While the border policy has toughened since the 1980s/1990s due to Nixon's “War on Drugs” policy, border control has become even more restrictive after 9/11 (Tonra 221, 239-240). One of the aftermaths of 9/11 was the enactment of the Home Security Act in 2001, and the resulting establishment of the Department of Home Security in 2002 (Butts 374, EagleWomen 33-34, Singleton 40, Tonra 221). According to Attorney General John Ashcroft “our homeland security remains threatened so long as
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