Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in the UK, accounting for 15% of all diagnosed cancers, affecting around 50,000 women and 350 men, leading to just under 12,000 deaths in 11/12.1,2 The risk of getting breast cancer is linked to increased age, gender & genetics (BRCA 1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations). Lifestyle factors that also increase the incidence of breast cancer (around 27% each year) are; Oestrogen exposure, being overweight/obese, high alcohol intake, tobacco smoke, oral contraceptives and certain hormonal replacement therapies.2,3,4
Although the incidence of breast cancer is increasing, mortality rates are declining due to better treatment and screening, and earlier detection.4,5 Patients are being made more aware of the …show more content…
Her previous medical history shows that she previously had ER+, HER2+ stage one breast cancer. Following a chemotherapy regimen of 4 x FEC-100 cycles, she was prescribed adjuvant Tamoxifen hormonal therapy for five years, which is shown to decrease the probability of breast cancer recurrence.10 Mrs. Smith’s respiratory complaints are diagnosed as a lung metastasis (advanced breast cancer, stage IV), upon which, her consultant decided to adhere to NICE guidelines and start her on Anthracycline chemotherapy, particularly, liposomal Doxorubicin.11
A study conducted by the CAELYX Breast Cancer Study Group (O’Brien et al.)12 aimed to demonstrate that pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD) was no less inferior to conventional Doxorubicin in leading to progression-free survival, whilst being markedly less cardiotoxic, when used as first line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. They conducted a randomized trial on 509 female patients, who received either 50mg/m2 PLD every four weeks, or Doxorubicin 60mg/m2 every three weeks. The inclusion criteria for the study was: females 18 years or older with a WHO performance status of ≤2 and measurable or evaluable, stages 3B or 4 metastatic breast cancer.13 Normal renal cardiac LVEF, haematological and hepatic functions were required. Exclusion criteria were; patients who had a history of ICH or LVEF below normal ranges.
Overall risk of cardiotoxicity
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Situation: The client is a 50-year-old female teacher who was notified of an abnormal screening mammogram. Diagnosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma was made following a stereotactic needle biopsy of a 1.5 x 1.5 cm lobulated mass at the 3:00 position in her left breast. The client had a modified radical mastectomy with lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node and 11 of 16 lymph nodes were positive for tumor. Estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors were both positive. Further staging work-up was negative for distant metastasis. Her final staging was stage IIB. Her prescribed chemotherapy regimen is 6 cycles of CAF after a single-lumen central line was placed.
Generally speaking, throughout the United States, Cancer is a public health concern that has a significant impact amongst both men and women. At the same time, Breast Cancer indicates development of a tumor from cells in the breast known as a malignant tumor. Breast Cancer can begin at two different points, either the cells of the lobules, that are milk-producing glands, or the ducts, a channel draining milk from the lobule to the nipple (“What is Breast Cancer,” 2016). Specifically speaking about Breast Cancer among women, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), it is the most common cancer, regardless of ethnicity or race. Under those
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in American women (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). However, regular screening and mammograms can help reduce the mortality rates of breast cancer patients (LaPorta, et al., 2017). Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include lumps, abnormal changes to the nipple, abnormal discharge from the nipple, or change in color of the breast or part of the breast (Asuquo and Olajide, 2015). There are many factors that can put women at risk of developing breast cancer, the two most common being growing older and being female (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Other risk factors can include things such as a
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women in the United States. A mammogram, is a simple test done with x-ray, to screen women for abnormalities of the breast. Over the past six years, the guidelines put out by various healthcare organizations have changed multiple times on when women should begin screening mammograms. Based on statistical data collected by the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), 20 percent of women go without a screening mammogram for their own various reasons, of which may be lack of insurance, lack of time or lack of knowledge as to when they should be getting a screening mammogram done due to the recent changes in recommendations. The utilization of annual screening mammograms beginning at age 40 will continue to help reduce the incidence rate of women with breast cancer, or catch it early enough so that treatment can be sought.
Herceptin can be used as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.  The inclusion criteria for adjuvant Herceptin therapy includes HER2+ breast cancer, nodal positive tumour, patients who have received approved neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy regimen and a normal cardiac function.  Exclusion criteria includes patients with a clinically significant coronary heart disease, patients requiring continuous oxygen etc. In adjuvant breast cancer therapy, Herceptin can be used in addition to other chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and either docetaxel or paclitaxel in a treatment regimen known as AC-TH. It can also be used in another treatment regimen known as TCH which includes docetaxel and cyclophosphamide. Herceptin can also be used as monotherapy treatment following a chemotherapy regimen.  Monotherapy Herceptin can only be given as a three-weekly schedule at a loading dose of 8mg/kg and a
There are many different diseases that terrorize the human race every day. Of all of these sicknesses, one of the most devastating is breast cancer. Breast cancer touches all types of people all over the world each day. It is actually the second most common cancer amongst women in the United States. One in every eight women in the United States has some form of breast cancer and currently, the death rates are higher than any other cancer with the exception of lung cancer. Cancer is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online dictionary as “a malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis.” Therefore, breast cancer is a disease of
Breast cancer is a leading cause of death of women, secondary only to heart disease. Breast cancer will affect one of every eight women or approximately 12% of the population. In 2016 there are 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer that will be diagnosed as well as 46,000 cases of breast cancer in situ in women. Additionally, there are 2,600 cases of breast cancer that will be found in men. Breast cancer rates have been decreasing since the year 2000. This is thought to be partially due to increased screening measures as well as discontinuing the use of hormone replacement therapy. There was as positive link established between hormone therapy
Breast cancer constitutes the second most prevalent cancer most common among women of the world with an estimated 1.62 million reported cases in 2012 which constitutes 25% of all cancer cases and ranks fifth among mortality due to cancer (Ferlay et al., 2015). In the United States, according to American Cancer Society an
Cancer of the breast is the most common type of non-skin cancer affecting women. It also comes second after lung cancer in the number of deaths among the African-American population in 2017; the American Cancer Society estimated that there would be approximately 252,710 new cases of breast cancer which is considered invasive that will be diagnosed in the United States. More so, nearly 63,410 new cases of (CIS) carcinoma in situ will be detected, and approximately 40,610 women will depart this life as a result of cancer of the breast(Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2015).In the United States, the incidence of cancer of the breast is not similar among the African America women and the white. Such that, it has been noted that the
Being a woman is the number one risk of breast cancer. “There are about 190,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 60,000 cases of non-invasive breast cancer this year in American women. While men do develop breast cancer, less than 1% of all new breast cancer cases happen in men. Approximately 2,000 cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed in American men this year” (Being a Woman, 2015). Women tend to get breast cancer more often than men because of hormonal factors and the maturing of the breast.
Our participants where acquired from two different locations in the Bronx County and Yonkers, N.Y. As displayed in the table 2, our findings indicate that 70% of women surveyed are current breast cancer patients. The participants also indicated that 20% of their breast abnormalities were found via a mammogram, and 35% were found through a self-breast examination. Our subjects also indicated that 63% of them have never performed a self-breast examination or were afraid to. Moreover, prior to their diagnosis 45% stated that they did not have access to health insurance. Out of these subjects, 65% documented that they were diagnosed at an early an early stage (0, I, II) and 63% reported a family history of breast
Every year for the last fifty years the number of cases of breast cancer in women has steadily increased. The only cancer that claims more women's lives in the United States is Lung Cancer.
In recent years, cancer prevalence has been increasing globally. It is now one of the top 10 causes of death among the middle and high income countries worldwide (World Health Organisation, 2008). In Singapore, cancer has surpassed cardiovascular disease and become the top killer over the last 3 years (Ministry of Health, 2007). Breast cancer tops the chart among Singaporean women (Health Promotion Board, 2007). Thousands of women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually and it causes approximately 270 deaths each year (Jara-Lazaro, et al., 2010). The lifetime risk that a woman in Singapore getting breast cancer is now 1 in every 17 which has risen compared to past two decades (National Cancer Centre Singapore, 2006). Hence, breast