Breast Cancer : A World Health Problem Essay

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Breast cancer (BC) is a world health problem which is known to be the second most deadly malignancy in women (Veronesi et al., 2005;Alvarez.,2010;DeSantis et al., 2014). In 2010, annually worldwide 115 million patients have breast cancer resulting in 410,000 deaths (Kennecke et al., 2010) according to world cancer research fund international in 2012 nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed. This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women. (Ferlay J et al., 2012 ). In 2014 Egypt represent the highest rates in the Middle East and North Africa around 18%. BC affects 121 per 100,000 people with a greater incidence among African Americans than other ethnic groups, while it affects 1 in 8 women with a total of about one million new cases per year worldwide of which 35% will eventually die in the Western world. BC is a complicated disease with several histological and molecular characteristics. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of breast cancer is essential to identifying new treatments and improve the current strategies for treatment and prevention of this disease.
The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that goes through a lot of changes during the menstrual cycle, development, pregnancy, and lactation. Normal mammary gland development and homeostasis is a stem cell driven process and key signaling pathways have been identified that control these processes. More Evidence suggests that the same genes that control the development of

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