Breast cancer (BC) is a world health problem which is known to be the second most deadly malignancy in women (Veronesi et al., 2005;Alvarez.,2010;DeSantis et al., 2014). In 2010, annually worldwide 115 million patients have breast cancer resulting in 410,000 deaths (Kennecke et al., 2010) according to world cancer research fund international in 2012 nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed. This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women. (Ferlay J et al., 2012 ). In 2014 Egypt represent the highest rates in the Middle East and North Africa around 18%. BC affects 121 per 100,000 people with a greater incidence among African Americans than other ethnic groups, while it affects 1 in 8 women with a total of about one million new cases per year worldwide of which 35% will eventually die in the Western world. BC is a complicated disease with several histological and molecular characteristics. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of breast cancer is essential to identifying new treatments and improve the current strategies for treatment and prevention of this disease.
The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that goes through a lot of changes during the menstrual cycle, development, pregnancy, and lactation. Normal mammary gland development and homeostasis is a stem cell driven process and key signaling pathways have been identified that control these processes. More Evidence suggests that the same genes that control the development of
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease occurring in women in Saudi society. After study and research, it found that two-thirds of the injuries in the Saudi society are diagnosed in advanced stages. The reasons for that are the lack of education for necessary of Self-examination and clinical examination annual, leading to the spread of the disease further. In addition to genetic changes, environmental pollution, bad lifestyle , Obesity ,Lack of exercise are also factors that helped in the spread of the disease. The delayed age of marriage and lack of breastfeeding are the risk factors for breast cancer(1,10,14).Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer is important for successful treatment selection , and increase mortality rate of breast cancer.
At this point in time, scientists and doctors have yet to discover the specific causes for breast cancer. However, what is known are the different risk factors that may trigger or put women more at danger of acquiring this
According to the United States Breast Cancer Statistics (2016), in 2016 there will be an estimated 246,660 newly diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer and 61,000 of non-invasive breast cancer among women. For this reason, when studying breast cancer based on a large-scale impact, it not only affects the patient themselves but, as well as their families and communities nationwide. Furthermore, many contributing factors lead to this being such a public health issue. Conclusively, there are specific programs, services, and policies that help to assist the contributing factors of such a public health threat. Nevertheless, breast cancer is still an increasing concern in society, and much-needed research is required to be able to detect and treat this disease.
Breast Cancer is a type of cancer where in the breast cells growth are uncontrolled. To enhance our understanding of breast cancer, knowing how any cancer can develop is crucial. Cancer develops as a result of the alteration of the genes, or abnormal changes in the genes accountable for managing the growth of the cells and maintaining their health. In each nucleus, the genes operates as the “control room.” The cells in our bodies replace themselves through a process called cell growth in which the
As the cells change, it begins to divide rapidly causing a tumor to form. The term “breast cancer” refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. Breast cancer can begin in different areas of the breast, or in some cases, the tissues in between. There are many different types of breast cancer, including non-invasive, invasive, recurrent, metastatic breast cancer, as well as the intrinsic or molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in around 20-30% of breast cancer tumors. It is associated with a more aggressive disease, higher recurrence rate, and increased mortality.
There are many different diseases that terrorize the human race every day. Of all of these sicknesses, one of the most devastating is breast cancer. Breast cancer touches all types of people all over the world each day. It is actually the second most common cancer amongst women in the United States. One in every eight women in the United States has some form of breast cancer and currently, the death rates are higher than any other cancer with the exception of lung cancer. Cancer is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online dictionary as “a malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis.” Therefore, breast cancer is a disease of
Breast cancer is a leading cause of death of women, secondary only to heart disease. Breast cancer will affect one of every eight women or approximately 12% of the population. In 2016 there are 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer that will be diagnosed as well as 46,000 cases of breast cancer in situ in women. Additionally, there are 2,600 cases of breast cancer that will be found in men. Breast cancer rates have been decreasing since the year 2000. This is thought to be partially due to increased screening measures as well as discontinuing the use of hormone replacement therapy. There was as positive link established between hormone therapy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. In 2008, more than one million women underwent a diagnostic evaluation for suspected breast cancer. Approximately 182,500 women of the more than one million that received an evaluation also received a positive diagnosis (Montgomery, 2010). Risk factors linked to Breast Cancer include: gender, age, family history, prior breast cancer, previous biopsy, race and ethnicity, breast density, and long menstrual history because of prolonged hormonal stimulation. Modifiable related risk factors also include hormone replacement therapy, alcohol, weight, and physical
Such findings, all of which relate to hormone-based life events, suggest that breast cancer is somehow affected by prolonged exposure to female sex hormones, such as estrogen. Women with a history of breast cancer in the family are also at greater risk. About five percent of all breast cancers have been attributed to a mutated, or structurally altered, gene known as BRCA1. Mutations in a second gene, BRCA2, contribute significantly to the development of breast cancer in Jewish women. Alcohol, high levels of fat in the diet, and not exercising regularly have also been linked to increased risk for breast cancer (Garber).
Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in the US for women (http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics). Even though the diagnosis and treatment of this condition has improved dynamically over the past few decades, it is still one of the leading causes of mortality among the women in USA and all over the world. There are usually four stages of breast cancer (http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics).
This paper will inform you of Breast Cancer. It is the most common form of cancer in women today but thanks to medical advances it is no longer the number one killer of women.
A female breast consists of fatty and fibrous connective tissues. The interior of the breast is divided into about twenty different sections called lobes. Each of the lobes is further divided in to lobules, which are structures that contain small milk-producing glands. These glands place the milk into tiny ducts. These ducts take the milk through out the breast and store in a chamber located below the nipple.
According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and 3.5% of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2005). There are risk factors that may lead to breast cancer. There are 4 stages of breast cancer and several treatments, although treatments vary from types and stages of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who are 40 to 55 years old (Breast Cancer, 2009).Cancer occurs when cells divide uncontrollably. It changes from a normal cell to cancerous cells that require gene alterations. Therefore the altered genes and the uncontrolled growth may lead to tumors.