According to Gardiner and Kosmitzki (2008), most recently the ecological perspective has become a leading approach towards addressing the relationships among persons and environment. In Essentials of Human Behavior, Hutchinson (2013) uses a multidimensional approach to better understand social work practice. Using this approach, one can analyze the connection between a client’s person, such as psychologically or biologically, a client’s environment, such as families or communities, and a client’s time, such as their linear time in past, present, or future. Specifically analyzing the environmental component, Uri Bronfenbrenner’s (1999) ecological perspective identifies four levels of systems a client may be associated with: microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems. During the placement at Lackawanna County Adult Probation and Parole Department, much opportunity was awarded to apply the ecological perspective on many of the offenders or clients. One particular example was a young woman, Katelyn (alias). When evaluating Katelyn’s using ecological perspective as a theoretical approach, we will be applying Bronfenbrenner’s four levels of systems (1999). First, one can identify Katelyn’s many different microsystems including: her mother, counselor, probation officer, peers, etc. This level of interaction is potentially the most influential level because these individuals have direct face-to-face, frequent contact with Katelyn. Katelyn’s second level, her
While practicing social work it is important to understand how an individual’s system and environment can
Social workers must strive “for a full understanding of the complex interactions between the client and all levels of the social and physical system as well as meaning that the client assigns to each of these interactions” (Andreae, 1996, p. 605).
System perspective see’s human behaviors as the outcome of interactions within and among social systems of interrelated parts. These social systems of interrelated parts consist of people within the family, friends, school and work. System perspectives can be understood as the subsystem of larger systems, where each system has its unique identity but they are all interdependent. From a system perspective, behaviors are influenced from the past which are learnt from within the family and other social systems. Within a system perspective, there are smaller systems that a Social Worker may consider for a more holistic view. This is done by considering the role the physical and social environment has on a person’s behavior as well as protective and risk factors that influences positive and negative outcomes.
Individuals’ mental status or physical/ behavioral recovery or medical treatment cannot persist in a healthy phase if their social roles in relationships are unaccounted or if their family is homeless, or they are living in a toxic social environment. I believe, even with the integration, of healthcare professional, the primary focus of social work should not only encompass psychological forces, the environment, or the social structure but on the boundary or the relationship between the person and the social
Social work professions need to understand the importance of how individuals interact both with other people and their environment, to have an understanding how individuals are affected by these interactions (Rogers, p. 2). According to Rogers (2016), “Social workers are knowledgeable about human behavior across the life course; the range of social systems in which people live; and the ways social systems promote or deter people in maintaining or achieving health and well-being. Social workers apply theories and knowledge from the liberal arts to understand biological, social, cultural, psychological, and spiritual development (p. 2). Their work with clients begins with assessments to evaluations of intervention and is based in and supports of the core value system of the profession.
“The Prison and Probation Service has two main goals: To contribute to the reduction of criminality, and to work to increase safety in society. To achieve these goals we work with sentenced persons in order to improve their possibilities of living a life without committing new crimes.” (Linstrom and Leijonram)
Social work has long recognized the relationship between the behavior of an individual and the environment in which the individual interacts (Hutchison, 2008). Human behavior theories offer a framework to organize, interpret and understand this relationship (Hutchison, 2008). For this case study, the following three theories will be examined for relevancy: Life cycle theory, role theory and resiliency theory.
As a social worker, it is extremely important to be aware of the biological factors that are affecting your client’s life. Clients could be suffering from illness such as depression caused by a decrease level in serotonin, or a behavior such as increased aggression caused by higher testosterone levels. It is important to understand that because both of these behaviors are caused by biological factors, they are out of our client’s control (Wormer, 2011). However, it is not only important to be aware of biological factors, it is also crucial to be aware of the person and environment in addition to the biological aspect. The specific perspective that includes all of these factors is known as life course perspective.
The social worker explores the issues that currently affect the client system. This identifies key issues, family history, cultural identities and values (Brew & Kottler 2008, p. 75). In collaboration, the social worker and the client system to prepare a plan of action. This includes outlining strengths, resources, goals, objectives, and targets for change (Miley, O’Melia & Dubois 2013, p. 119). Tools can be used to gather more information such as genograms and eco-maps. The genogram is utilised to identify the client system’s family and explore the
When working with a new client, it is important to have as much information as you can obtain to help determine what services may or may not be needed. The multidimensional approach can assess all areas of a person’s life. This helps the social worker not just look at a single facet, but the entire person as a whole. People are not one dimensional hence their treatment shouldn’t be one dimensional. In many instances, treating the presenting problem will only put a Band-Aid on the situation. As social workers, we should look at the underlining cause of the problem in order to give the best treatment available.
Both clinical social workers and caseworkers use this model to aid their clients. This model is often used, since it focuses on the boundaries of the systems as it seeks to focus on each individual client (Schatz, Jenkins, & Sheafor, 1990). Beginning in the 1960s, the generalist perspective was created from the Milford conference, which stated that a generic approach to social work was necessary (Schatz et al., 1990). The generalist perspective continued to develop throughout the 1960s and 1970s, and it quickly became the base for all social work (Schatz et al., 1990). What occurred with the foundation of the generalist perspective was the interlacing of casework, group work, and community organization with the emphasis on understanding the interaction between individuals and their unique environments (Miller, Tice, & Hall, 2008). With the emmeshing of these crucial concepts, the generalist perspective uses the person-in-environment perspective as its foundation and attempts to include policy, practice, and research (Miller et al., 2008). Moreover, with the combination of these levels and perspectives, the generalist perspective seeks to
In the generalist social work practice, a social worker is a change agent due to the expansive and complex umbrella of social and human services and roles. A change agent works to promote positive changes for the well-being of an individual, family, group, organization or community. In order to fulfill the tasks of a social worker, one should be trained and equipped with a wide variety of skills: such as setting appropriate boundaries, possessing and utilizing self-awareness and the ability to counsel or advocate for clients. In addition to many skills, the generalist social work practice includes a surplus of methods to either prevent or intervene when necessary. A method often utilized by social workers is the person-in-environment conceptualization. The person-in-environment perspective considers factors, such as familial or economic, beyond the individual to better understand the client’s behaviors or situation. Another method is the strengths perspective. The strength-based perspective focuses on the client’s or client system’s positive qualities to build upon those capabilities. And the recognition of strengths helps to achieve goals in a more client-led approach. Generalist practitioners are professionals with a wide range of knowledge and a repertoire of diverse skills in order to enhance the social functioning of all within society.
I also agree that management has to be able to change and grow and continue to listen to any upward communication from the staff. In order to accomplish better communication, management should provide an ‘open-door’ policy and also informal meetings where employees can either feel free to go to their supervisors first with any questions or concerns and also raise issues with resources or basically anything that interferes with their job performance (Newstrom, 2014, p. 70).
“The unique contribution of the social work practice is the duality of the professions person and environment mandate: social workers must help society work better for the people and help people function better within society.” (Segal, Gerdes, and Steiner, 2016, p. 3).
.I agree with the fact that social workers are using Bio psychosocial model in clients such as by looking at the clients biological, psychological ("which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors"), and social ("socio-economical, socio-environmental, and cultural") factors that affect the clients because by doing that the social worker will get to know the entire information about the client rather than the client problems only. As a result, that is how the social worker will help the client with his or her problem.