Causes And Adverse Effects Of Geriatric Patients And Health Care Professionals

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Introduction: Urosepsis can cause adverse effects in geriatric patients, and health care professionals must be careful when prescribing treatment to ensure that the best choice is made for the patient. Urosepsis is defined as an infection that originates in the urinary tract and spills over into the bloodstream. It is considered a medical emergency that causes the diagnosed individual to be admitted into the hospital and immediately given fluids and an anti-infective for treatment (McCance & Huether, 2014). Pathophysiology of Urosepsis: Cell wall bacteria, such as gram-negative organisms and gram-positive organisms, fix to cellular receptors and co-receptors on the surface of neutrophils, macrophages, endothelial cells and urothelial cells (Wagenlehner et al., 2013). The gram-negative bacteria releases endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and the gram-positive bacteria releases exotoxins such as lipoteichoic acids, peptidoglycans, and/or super-antigens. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are then released from the bacteria in the urogenital tract; the mediators released include tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 alpha and beta (IL-1α and β), and IL-6. The complement system, coagulation system, kinin system and neutrophil, endothelial, and monocyte-macrophage cell activity is activated and release anti-inflammatory cytokines, including LPS binding protein, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, nitric oxide and other anti-inflammatory cytokines. The
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