Ch. 12 & 13 Dna & Protein Synthesis Project. By Anthony

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Ch. 12 & 13 DNA & Protein Synthesis Project
By Anthony Li, Connor Farrell, John Koutsonikolis, and Tristan Funicelli

(Tristan) # Describe the contributions of each of the following to the discovery of the structure of DNA - 1) Watson and Crick: Used Rosalind Franklin’s x-rays of DNA to conclude that DNA took the shape of a double helix. 2) Frederick Miescher: Used pus from infections to isolate nuclein. He found that nuclein had a unique ratio of phosphorous to nitrogen. 3) Oswald Avery: Tested many strains of bacteria and discovered that DNA carries a cell’s genetic code and can be altered through transformations. 4) Rosalind Franklin: Used x-ray diffractions to take pictures of the structure of DNA. The pictures alluded to DNA’s
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A/T and G/C have equal amounts in DNA. This is why they pair up.

(Tristan) # Explain the process by which DNA is able to make copies of itself also including an explanation of why it is considered semiconservative replication - There are four steps to replication
1) Unwind: Helicase splits a DNA section in half at the replication fork.
2) Unzips: DNA Polymerase breaks the hydrogen bonds and unwinds the section.
3) Copy: DNA Polymerase joins individual nucleotides with their complementary counterparts to form a new strand of DNA. Replication runs in the 5’ to 3’ direction.
4) Rewind: The DNA section is zipped back up and winded up again.

DNA replication is considered semiconservative because each new strand of DNA contains only half of the original DNA strand.

6. (Connor) Compare and Contrast the prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromies.
Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Prokaryotes typically have a single circular chromosome
Are condensed in the nucleoid via DNA supercoiling and binding of architectural proteinsTranscription and translation occur at the same time
Most only contain a single copy of each gene
Genomes are efficient and compact with very little of the same DNA
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Contain multiple linear chromosomes
Condensed in a nucleus with a membrane by histones
Transcription occurs
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