Clostridium Tetani Case Study

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Identify the disease caused by Clostridium tetani. Describe the generalised structure of a bacterium. You may include diagrams but must refer to them in the text. Discuss 5 modes of transmission of microorganism and identify which of these is the most likely mode for Clostridium tetani
The disease caused by clostridium tetani is called tetanus. It’s an acute disease caused by the anaerobic bacterium bacillus (Marieb & Hoehn, 2016). Tetanus is not a contagious disease and the only means of getting it is from contaminated wounds. Tetanus is an exotoxin disease. An exotoxin is a substance released by bacteria. Tetanus infection can be transported around the body by the lymphatic system. This will affect the vascular system first before spreading …show more content…

when a B-cell encounters a pathogen it triggers the humoral immune response where they secret antibodies that are made specifically for that antigen. B lymphocytes are activated in the lymph nodes. CD4 cells that become helper T cells help to activate B cells (Marieb & Hoehn, 2016), with the help of IL4 and MHC II proteins. They transform into plasma cells that make antibodies that bind to antigens. Humoral immunity is found in the red bone marrow and its primary targets are pathogens found in the extracellular such as bacteria and viruses. B-cells become plasma effector cells and forms memory …show more content…

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry signals between a neuron and the cells of the body. There are two types of transmission, presynaptic and postsynaptic. presynaptic transmit impulses towards the synapse and postsynaptic neuron conducts the signal away from the synapse (Marieb & Hoehn, 2016). When a transmission occurs between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic, molecules that are stored in the synaptic vesicles, are released from the synaptic knob of the presynaptic and into the synaptic cleft (McKinley, O’Loughlin

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