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The Pathology and Characterisics of Clostridium tetani Essay

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Clostridium tetani is a Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria retain a crystal violet stain in their thick peptidoglycan. C. tetani are bacillus-shaped organisms. Typically bacillus shaped organisms are shaped like rods, however, C. tetani, although bacillus, tend to have a drumstick-like shape. This drumstick shaping is due to terminal spores formed by the bacteria. Spores are dormant forms of an organism. The spores germinate and swell within the cell, imparting the bacteria’s drumstick shape.1 Clostridium tetani are also anaerobic, meaning that they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. The organisms are very sensitive to heat, however, the spores that they produce can become rather resistant to heat and antiseptics.2 C.…show more content…
The first and most common type is generalized tetanus. The first symptom of this specific type of tetanus is stiff-jaw, and then it spreads to the muscles of the neck and back. Fever and high blood pressure are also common symptoms involved with generalized tetanus.6 The localized type of tetanus is rather uncommon and consists of contractions that persist in the same area. Cephalic tetanus affects the cranial nerves and can result from a severe ear infection. The neonatal type, which infects newborns, can occur when the umbilical cord is cut with an instrument that has not been properly cleaned.3 Tetanus is a disease that is observed worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated that neonatal type tetanus had killed about 180,000 newborns in the year 2002.4 It is non-communicable, which means that an infected person cannot transfer the disease to another person. It is the only vaccine-preventable disease that is infections but is not contagious. The best way to prevent tetanus in an individual is by getting vaccinated. Currently, there are the following four vaccines used in prevention of tetanus: DTaP, DT, Tdap, and Td. The DTaP and DT vaccines are used for children under the age of seven, while the Tdap and Td are used for adolescents and adults.3 Tetanus boosters are also
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