Cocaine and amphetamines are highly addictive and dangerous drugs that have affected our society today. There have been various forms of cocaine and amphetamines that have become popular and abusive throughout the United States. The forms of cocaine are: powder and crack, and these two forms are seen as highly dangerous to the individuals that abuse it. Also, there are several types of amphetamines which have been noted to be just as addictive and dangerous as cocaine. In this paper I will briefly discuss the different forms of cocaine and amphetamines as well as discuss the treatment options used for individuals with cocaine and amphetamine abuse.
According to Maisto, Galizio, & Conners, (2011), there are two forms of cocaine that consist …show more content…
Also, Methamphetamine brand name is Desoxyn and the slang names are speed, crank, ice, etc. Methylphenidate brand name is Ritalin and Concerta and the slang name is Vitamin R. Lastly, Methcarthinone, which is mostly used in Africa, slang name is cat (Drug use and abuse, 2011, p. 120). Even though medically used amphetamines are used to calm children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), they are still considered to be an addictive and a quite dangerous stimulant (Drug use and abuse, 2011, p. 120).
According to Emrick, Lassen, and Edwards (1977), the treatment options that are available for individuals addicted to cocaine or amphetamines would consist of “peer self help groups” (Drug use and abuse, 2011, p. 372). It was stated by Regier et al., (1993) that a national survey showed over 1.5 million individuals in the United States using self help groups to overcome their drug abuse (Drug use and abuse, 2011, p. 373). In the self help group, the individual must first be ready or motivated to make the changes before attempting to join. There are also professional drug rehabilitation facilities, but not all individuals are able to afford to attend those costly facilities.
In conclusion, the different forms of cocaine and different types of amphetamines are all considered addictive and dangerous to our society. Even though, there are medicinal uses for cocaine and amphetamines, there are side effects that can make life for the individuals
Methamphetamine is an extremely dangerous drug that is included in the same drug class as other drugs like Cocaine. It’s most common street names include; ice, glass, crank, and meth. Meth starts off as a stimulant, but turns into a drug that will destroy your body. Meth addiction is one of the hardest addictions to treat,
The long term effects of cocaine are very extreme. Once having tried cocaine, an individual may have difficulty controlling the urge to use the drug and the perspective might change leaving the consumption of the drug as primordial. Cocaine’s stimulant and addictive effects are due primarily as a result of its ability to stop the reabsorption of dopamine by nerve
Some of the most commonly abused substances, that can cause serious psychological and physical side effects are stimulants. Substance abuse has been a problem in the United States and many other countries for a long time, stimulants are one of the biggest problems that the United States faces today. One specific drug that is abused is crack and crack cocaine. By examining the history of stimulants such as crack and crack cocaine, it 's connection to crime and violence will be revealed.
"Cocaine and crack are among the most addictive substances known to modern science, and they have already ruined the lives of millions of Americans" (Morganthau and Miller, 208). Cocaine and crack are both dangerous, harmful drugs. Though pleasurable effects can be obtained from these drugs, the use of crack and cocaine cannot be worth the actual consequences that are inflicted on mind and body. The bad effects of these drugs, by far outweigh the good. Because crack and cocaine are so closely related, it is important to have a firm understanding of both drugs.
Crack cocaine has been popular since the 1970s and mid 1980s. Crack cocaine is not a new drug; this drug is obtained from coca plant which grows mainly in South America. For many years, the native South American Indians chewed its leaves to develop strength and increased energy. By the 1800s, the cocaine was secluded from its leaves and used as a medicinal drug. By the late 1800s, it was used as an anesthetic and to avert surgical hemorrhage. The next century, people recognized crack cocaine an addictive narcotic and its non-medical use of the drug was ended by the Harrison Narcotics Act in 1914 (“How crack cocaine works?”).
There is no cookie cutter heroin user. In fact, many of heroin’s newest addicts are in their teens or early 20s; many also come from middle- or upper-middle-class suburban families. Heroin is a dangerous drug that has many different “street names” such as Smack, Mud, Dope, Dragon, and Junk. The scientific names are diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine.
The abuse of methamphetamine is a very serious problem in the United States. According to one national survey, approximately 10 million people in the United States have tried methamphetamine at least once (Meth Abuse and Addiction, 2010). Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Although most of the methamphetamine used in this country comes from foreign or domestic super labs, the drug is also easily made in small clandestine laboratories, with inexpensive over the counter ingredients. Methamphetamine is commonly known as “speed,” “meth,” and “chalk.” In its smoked form it is often referred to as “ice,” “crystal,” “crank,” and “glass.” It is a
For short-term use, cocaine can provide extreme happiness, enhanced sensitivity to sound and touch or mental alertness. People takes cocaine as it can provide energy on their work but a long-term use of cocaine may lead to malnourishment, irritability, restlessness, paranoia and auditory hallucination (NIDA, 2016; Roncero, C., et al., 2013). Also, cocaine abuse may have other complications such as nosebleed because of snorting, difficulties in swallowing and easily infected by HIV or hepatitis C through needle injection and the misjudgment on having unsafe sex (NIDA, 2016). On the other hand, long-term use of cocaine may lead to addiction and a stronger dosage will be taken when they have any withdrawal symptoms. For instance, symptoms of depression, fatigue and increased appetite. Nowadays, still no medicines were approved for treating the addiction on cocaine and thus the treatment of cocaine addiction is
One of the most detrimental and addictive narcotics in the world today is cocaine. Cocaine dates back as early as 3000 BC. Ancient Incas used the coca leaves to counter the effects of living in thin mountain air. Native Peruvians in the 1500’s chewed the plant strictly for religious ceremonies. Andean Indians are believed to chew the leaves of the coca plant to increase their energy for work while decreasing their hunger and pain. It wasn’t until 1859 when a German chemist Albert Niemann successfully extracted the narcotic from the coca leaf. In the 1880’s, it was freely prescribed by physicians for “maladies as exhaustion, depression, and morphine addiction and was available in many patent medicines” (“Cocaine”), until users and doctors began to realize its dangers and side effects. While it was not fully understood at the time, cocaine has many devastating and lasting effects on the user.
The abuse of methamphetamines in the United States seems to have started during the “Great Depression” and increased during WWI, WWII, and Viet Nam. Many times, amphetamines were prescribed by the government and the military to keep fighting soldiers going. After returning from their tour of duty, many soldiers returned home addicted to the drug. Also during the 50’s and 60’s, amphetamines were being used as a weight loss medication. But eventually began to be abused by the users.
Cocaine has been Shown to block the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) at the adrenergic nerve ending. Consequently, there is an increase in the postsynaptic stimulation of NE receptors and their target cells because of the increased levels at NE in the synapse. Cocaine’s effect on the adrenergic neurons themselves is inhibition (Dackis & Gold. 1987).
Cocaine usage is not as popular today as it was back in the 1900s but it continues to be abused as it was then. The drug has become addictive to those that used the drug intravenously, and free base (smoking crack). It has been said that individuals who try cocaine by inhaling, injecting, snorting would become addicted by using it for the first time. The individuals try to capture the pleasure or that high he/she first got when using the drug, the psychological effects of cocaine, addiction and dependence reports “only about 10 to 15% of those who initially try cocaine intranasally become abusers” (Gawin, 1991, p.1584).
Historically, the use of drugs as fixers of the world's private ills has run into serious, if unanticipated, snags. At the turn of the century, the medical community thought that Cocaine was a completely appropriate, nonaddictive drug, and widely prescribed it. In the 1950s and '60s, first barbiturates and then amphetimines were recommended for various psychological ailments. It
Methamphetamine was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers. There are a few accepted medical reasons for its use, such as the treatment of narcolepsy and ADD, but these uses are limited. In its regular form, methamphetamines are also known as speed, meth, and chalk. In its smoked form, it is known as ice, crystal, crank, and glass. Methamphetamine comes in many forms and can be smoked, snorted, orally ingested or injected. The smokeable form of methamphetamine, knows as "ice," came into use in the 1980's. Ice is a large, usually clear crystal of high purity that is smoked in a glass pipe like crack/cocaine. The smoke is odorless, leaves a residue that can be re-smoked, and produces effects that my continue for 12 hours or more. Since there are a few accepted medical reasons for its use, methamphetamine is a controlled substance in the United States, and cannot be used legally without a doctor's approval. Methamphetamine abuse can also lead to legal, financial, and social problems. If methamphetamines are used during pregnancy, babies tend to be asocial, incapable of bonding, have tremors, have birth defects, and cry for 24 hours without stopping. There is also an increased risk of child abuse and neglect of children born to parents who use methamphetamines. WISC-TV reports, "There's a new drug moving into your neighborhood, reports WISC-TV. It's methamphetamine and it's one of the
Once an addict has made the personal commitment to change old habits, the next step is to establish new, safe and positive influences in their life. These can be found in quality support groups, hospital substance abuse centers and drug rehab centers. No matter what the setting, it is important to be around strangers. Being in proximity to familiar places and people may promote the tendency to fall back into old thoughts and behaviors. Of the aforementioned options, private drug rehabilitation retreats seem to be gaining popularity, in part, due to the impressive success rate they boast.