Critically evaluate the contribution made by sociologists to our understanding of health and illness
Sociology, the study of society and social behaviour of groups, at various levels and from different perspectives, from solid interpretations to generalisations. It can vary from the study of two individuals encounter to the analysis of global social processes. There are three main areas of sociology, social structures such as education, family and social stratification, social systems for example culture and identity and social issues such as the causes of crime and the impact of unemployment. It is difficult to define society, other than as a number of people who live in the same territory, participate in common culture and are …show more content…
Alvin Gouldner (1971) argues that functionalism ignores the extent to which people are coerced in society to do things they do not wish to do. It is a deterministic perspective which sees human behaviour as shaped by the social system’s needs, making no allowances for the individuals’ free-will and choice. This approach views health with a negative concept and is essentially concerned with the theme of the sick role and the associated issue of illness and behaviour, health becomes a prerequisite for the smooth functioning of society. “The model of the sick role, which Talcott Parsons designed in the 1950s, was the first theoretical concept that explicitly concerned medical sociology .In contrast to the biomedical model, which pictures illness as a mechanical malfunction or a microbiological invasion, Parsons described the sick role as a temporary, medically sanctioned form of deviant behaviour” (www.ucel.ac.uk). Talcott Parsons (1951) argues that illness is socially defined in terms of the sick role, based upon two right and two obligations; the right to be exempt from normal social obligations such as work, the right to be absolved from blame, The obligation to try and get well and the obligation to seek medical help for a condition, the doctor therefore acting as a gatekeeper. “Parson used ideas from Freud’s psychoanalytic theories as well as from functionalism and from
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The medical view of health, ‘being without disease or illness’ is purely focused on the biological functions of a disease or illness and does not consider mental or social aspects of the individual’s disease or illness. The medical definition has a negative concept of health because it suggests that having health is normal and as long as you are without a disease or illness you will be healthy.
Sociology is defined as ‘The study of human social life, groups and societies’ (Giddens, 1989). It involves describing and analysing how different forces such as social, cultural, political, and economic have on behaviour and an individuals identity. (Van Kreiken et al.2000). Furthermore, it encompasses the complex connections on a micro level along with those on a macro level thus enabling sociological imagination.
Sociology is the study of social life and the change and consequences of human behavior. Human behavior is social in nature, the topic of sociology ranges from divisions of race, gender and sociology of work and sports. In my opinion, sociology is one of the few fields which have such a broad scope and relevance for breadth, depth and application.
Sociology is the study of how social forces influence individuals living within a society. Any society is made of norms, values and beliefs that have the effect of constraining individuals’ thoughts and behaviors. Through understanding and sociological imagination, individuals can remove or at least lessen the social forces’ impacts that are causing the constraints.
In the sociology of medicine Parson (1951) regarded medicine as functional in social terms. By tackling the person’s problems in medical terms the tendency towards deviance that was represented by ill health could be safely directed, until they could return to their normal self. (Lawrence 1994: p 64-65: BMJ 2004: Parson cited in Gabe, Bury & Elston 2006, p 127).
Sociology is the scientific study of human society. It examines the development of social structures, and the interaction between these structures and human behaviour. Sociologists aim to provide tools of understanding the process of socialisation, and investigate the causes and consequences of things such as labels, belief systems, bureaucracy, gender roles, relationships, and inequality. Becker and Horowitz (1972) claimed that "good sociology is sociological work that
Throughout society there are many different sociological approaches to health and ill health. Within society there are many different perspectives towards whom the responsibility for health falls upon and also what defines people as ill? Your health is defined by the general condition of your body and mind. An illness is defined by an impairment of normal physical or mental function. To help explain the different sociological approaches to health and ill health I will be referring to the case study of Aziz and Tamsela. Aziz and Tamsela have four young children; Tamsela’s elderly parents also live with them in their three bedroomed houses in a deprived and depressing area of London. Their house is in desperate need of repair; it is damp and
This report will be investigating the various sociological perspectives on health as well as the models and definitions of health and ill health. These topics will assist in the understanding of how different people and different cultures react to ill health.
Sociology is a social science that enables people to understand the structure and dynamics of society. By using a scientific approach, and by critically analysing society using qualitative and quantitative methods, sociologists can find patterns and connections within human behaviour to provide explanations of how society affects people. Sociological views are based on theories that have been tested through unbiased research and attempt to take all values into account. Common sense theories are generally individualistic and naturalistic assumptions that are based on opinions than can vary depending on an individuals
Introduction: In sociology we can learn about the society. Sociology is a social science which also study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies. It helps us to create a behavior which is accepted by the society. For reviewing on sociological concepts The Boy in The Striped Pajamas is a good movie. There are four sociological concepts we can relate with this movie which are Cultural Shock, Ethnocentrism, Culture and Gender Inquality.
The conceptualisation of medicine as an institution of societal control was first theorised by Parsons (1951), and from this stemmed the notion of the deviant termed illness in which the “sick role” was a legitimised condition. The societal reaction and perspective was deemed a pillar of the emerging social construction of disease and conception of the formalised medical model of disease. Concerns surrounding medicalisation fundamentally stem from the fusion of social and medical concerns wherein the lines between the two are gradually blurred and the the social consequences of the proliferation of disease diagnosis that results from such ambiguities of the social medical model.
A significant criticism of functionalism is that it describes the ideal conditions, essentially the effects, of the two interrelated structures necessary for equilibrium within the healthcare system. Functionalism essentially states that both institutions of health, including the doctors and the citizens who interact with the institutions, are functions of the overall system. The 'causal question' (Isajiw, 1968, pp.28-29) is thus: either these functions are a cause of their effectiveness within the boundary of the overall healthcare system or the overall healthcare system and its effectiveness is a cause of the constituent functions. Functionalism is ambiguous as to the answer to this question which is significant because the answer would determine the nature of the precise interaction of functions with the healthcare system and therefore determine the precise causal nature of human behaviour within the system.
I thought the concept of sociology referred to how people socialize in communities. Little did I know that sociology study all aspects of life, including how society and people affect each other positively or negatively. I also did not know that sociology looks at what makes people exhibit behaviours that may deviate from the set norms and values of society.
Sociology is the study of the social lives of human beings and how humans live culturally and socially develop relationships. It is crucial to understand the society that humans live in and a series of social behavior that humans undergo. The three major ways you could view sociology, Structural Functionalism, Conflict theory, and Symbolic Interaction. Not everyone will have the same sociological perspective because the different perspectives are truly based on what you believe this world runs on.
Sociology is the study of the behavior of people and groups within society. This helps out how society works and thinks, If people understand how society thinks we can improve it. With this in mind, you can apply sociology theories and ideas to any scenario of daily life dealing with person to person interaction or even to an individual in regards to the society.